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money demanded by the British commanders. when his majesty of the Golden Foot, as the head of the Burmhan empire is styled, heard of these proposals, he is said to have broke out into the most furious burst of passion, and gave orders for the immediate renewal of hostilities. The whole Burmese army now advanced along the Irawaddy against Prome, which it gradually surrounded, and repulsed an advance of two brigades of native infantry, under colonel M' Dowgal. On the 1st of December, however, Sir Archibald Campbell was prepared to commence operations on the immense but unorganesed masses of the enemy; and drove the whole of them before him to Melloone, on the right bank of the Irrawaddy. Here they concentrated, and again entered into negociations with the British, the result of which was the signature of a treaty ceding Arracan and the provinces of Mergui, Tavoy, and Zea, to the company, and agreeing that Assem, Cachar, Zeating, and Munnipoor, should be placed under princes to be nominated by the British. The court of Ava was further to pay to the company a crore of rupees by instalments, as an indemnification for the expenses of the war. This treaty was signed on the 3d of January 1826, and fifteen days were allowed for its ratification by the court; but it afterwards appeared that it never was sent thither, and the British army continued to advance on the capital. When it was within four days' march of that place the Burmese government appeared to think seriously that it must make these important concessions for a peace; and Dr. Price, an American missionary, was the bearer of the first instalment of the money stipulated, and brought with him all the prisoners that had been detained at Ava. He also, after some further delay, produced the ratified treaty. On the 5th of March the troops who had so nobly maintained this unequal warfare, and marched from victory to victory into the very heart of an immense hostile empire, began their retreat to Rangoon.

We believe the Burmese have since continued to pay, though with no small tokens of reluctance, the instalments specified.

This year was also signalised by the taking of the town and fortress of BHURTPORE (see that article and the suppression of a revolt against the rajah, who had placed himself under our protection.

INDIA COMPANY, EAST. It was not until the close of the sixteenth century, and after the Portuguese had been established for nearly 100 years in the east, that Great Britain appeared as her competitor in this part of the world. But in 1577 Sir Francis Drake sailed to India by Cape Horn, and returned by the Cape of Good Hope: he was succeeded by less celebrated adventurers, who all agreeing with him in the favorable accounts they brought home of the commerce and inhabitants, in 1599 the first regular company for trading hither was formed. In 1583 queen Elizabeth had given introductory letters to the princes of India to two adventurers, Newberry and Filch, and others in 1596 to Allot and Bromfield, all of whom proceeded to the court of the great Mogul by land, and were well received there

The company we have mentioned subscribed a capital of £30,000 in 101 shares, varying n amount from £100 to £3000; and on the 30th of December the queen granted them letters patent as a Society of Merchants of London trading to the East Indies. They equipped a squadron, which arrived at Achen in 1602, and met with a favorable reception from the king: hence it proceeded to Java; established a factory at Bantam ; and, loading the ships with pepper, returned to England. Eight other successful voyages were performed between this period and 1613, yielding a profit of from 100 to 200 per cent.

The first English expeditions were entirely of a commercial nature, and the establishments they formed were with the consent of the native princes: such were Masulapatam and Calicut, where they had factories a few years after their first appearance in India. It was, however, soon found that this pacific conduct would not permit them to compete with the Portuguese and Dutch, who possessed fortified places and secure ports, while we were dependent for the bare permission to trade on the caprice of the natives.

When our merchants endeavoured to obtain admission to Surat, in 1611, the Portuguese threatened to burn all the towns of that coast if they were received. The squadrons of the two nations met off Surat, and the English, under Middleton, were obliged to retire. The following year captain Brest, arriving off the same port with a stronger force, twice defeated the Portuguese fleet, though much superior; and in 1613 concluded a treaty of commerce with the Mogul, by which a free trade to all parts of his dominions was granted to the English. In the same year James I. sent an ambassador to Achen, who procured permission to establish a factory in that city, with considerable commercial privileges; and between 1613 and 1629 the English had also formed settlements at Priaman and Ticoo, on the west coast of Sumatra; while the Dutch had established factories at Padang, &c. But both nations were shortly after driven entirely from the island by the king of Achen, now grown jealous of the encroachments of those new visitors.

Though, during the reign of James I., the English Company received little support from the government, by activity, perseverance, and the prudent choice of its servants, it had gradually acquired strength and solidity in India; when the Dutch, feeling that their own success depended on the ruin of their rivals, attacked them in every part of India; and, as they now possessed the same advantages over the English that the Portuguese did over them on their first arrival, it is not to be wondered at if they were every where successful.

After the Indian seas had been dyed with the blood of both nations, the Dutch remained victorious; and would probably have entirely driven the English from these seas had not the companies at home interposed. One of the chief objects of contention between the two nations wa the commerce of the Spice Islands, of which th English claimed a share. The companies, order to accommodate this difference, conclude a treaty in 1619, by which the produce of thes

1

Islands was to be divided between them in the proportion of two-thirds to the Dutch and onethird to the English, each contributing a like proportion towards the expenses of the establishments. This treaty, however, did not satisfy the Dutch in India, and, on pretence that the English had formed a conspiracy against them, they seized all the persons of the English factory at Amboyna in 1622, and, after inflicting unparalleled tortures on them, put them publicly to death. It is impossible to see in this atrocious massacre any thing but the effect of avidity without bounds; for it would be absurd to suppose that ten factors and eleven soldiers, the number of persons composing the English factory, should form a design to get possession of a fort garrisoned by 200 Dutch. The English king was, however, too deeply immersed in theological controversy to pay much attention to the rights of his subjects, and no vengeance was taken for the massacre of Amboyna, but the Dutch were permitted quietly to enjoy the fruits of their iniquity; and, in order to secure them more efficiently, they prevailed on the kings of Ternate and Tidor, the two most powerful princes of the Moluccas, in consideration of the payment of £3000 a year, to cause all the clove and nutmeg trees in their respective islands to be destroyed annually. By this means the culture of the clove was confined to Amboyna, and that of the nutmeg to the Banda Íslands, of which the Dutch had the entire and undisputed possession.

The affairs of the English still continued to decline in India, and the civil wars which deluged the mother country with blood, during the latter part of the life of Charles I., accelerated their down-hill career, so that, at the death of that ill-fated monarch, the East India Company was an empty shadow, and its trade reduced to insignificance.

Cromwell, irritated against the Dutch for assisting the unfortunate Stuarts, and affording an asylum to their proscribed adherents, commenced a maritime war against Holland, which was successful in every part of the world, and the republic was at length obliged to sue for peace. Though Cromwell might have dictated his own terms with respect to India, he contented himself with securing a free trade to the English, obliging the Dutch government to disavow the massacre of Amboyna, and to make some compensation to the descendants of the victims. The Island of Ron was also to be restored to the English; but from this island, which is little better than a rock, and without any harbour, the Dutch had previously extirpated all the nutmeg trees; nevertheless the English returned to it, but were again driven from it by their rivals in

1666.

The security of its trade, however, restored the affairs of the English Company, which went on successfully for some years, until it received a check from a rivalry to which that success had given rise. Charles II., whose sole object throughout his reign was to raise money for his dissolute pleasures, sold permission to private merchants to trade to India, in direct violation of the company's charter, while he at the same

time made the company pay for permission to prosecute the interlopers; the natural consequence was a kind of civil war for some years between the two parties in the Indian seas. The Dutch also still harassed the English whenever an opportunity presented itself; and in 1682, by their intrigues, they procured the monopoly of the pepper of Bantam, and obliged the English to withdraw their factory thence.

The English Company determined to revenge this aggression, and for that purpose fitted out a fleet of twenty-three vessels, on board which were embarked 8000 troops; but, at the moment this formidable armament was on the point of sailing, the king directed its departure to be postponed. Charles doubtless expected to receive a large sum from the company to revoke his order; but, being disappointed, he did not hesitate to sell the honor of the nation and the interests of his subjects to their enemies, and for the sum of £1,000,000 sterling, paid him by the Dutch, the expedition was ordered to be entirely laid aside.

The English, driven from Java, once more turned their views towards Sumatra, and in 1684 an envoy was sent from Madras to Achen, to demand permission to erect a fort there. This was, however, refused; but a free trade was granted them, and liberty to erect a wooden factory, which was immediately constructed.

While the English envoys were at Achen the rajahs of Priaman and other places on the west coast of Sumatra were there also, soliciting assistance of the Achenese against the Dutch, who had usurped their territories and otherwise injured them.

These chiefs, seizing the idea of opposing the two European nations to each other, offered the English envoys the monopoly of their pepper, and the liberty to build forts, provided they would rid them of the Dutch. On this condition a treaty was concluded between the Madras government and the Sumatra chiefs in 1685, and vessels were immediately despatched to Sumatra, where the establishment of Bencoolen was formed. In spite of the intrigues of the Dutch, the English obtained a firm footing in the island' while the influence of their rivals declined, and at the close of the seventeenth century was almost entirely destroyed.

But, while the English were thus extending their establishments on the east, they had nearly lost one of their chief settlements on the west. The expenses of the fleet which the company had equipped to chastise the Dutch had so greatly exhausted its resources, that it was obliged to send its ships to India without funds, to procure cargoes on credit if possible, and, from the good faith which had hitherto marked its dealings, merchandise to the value of £280,000 was thus procured. The means resorted to, to acquit this debt, were disgraceful to the English name, and were nearly productive of the total destruction of the English commerce in Western India. It appears that Sir Josiah Child, the chairman of the court of directors, unknown to his colleagues, sent instructions to his brother, the governor of Bombay (which had been given to Charles II. as the marriage portion of his queen Catherine) to

make such demands of the Mogul government of Surat as he knew must be refused. These demands were accordingly made, and, as foreseen, were rejected with contempt, when Child, on pretence that this rejection was tantamount to a declaration of war, seized all the vessels belonged them. Their defenceless situation exposing ing to the subjects of the Mogul, to an immense value. Aurungzebe, who then swayed the sceptre of Hindostan, lost no time in preparing to punish the authors of this unprovoked robbery. In 1689 his generals landed 20,000 men on the island of Bombay, defeated the English who opposed them, and obliged them to shut themselves up in the citadel, where they were closely besieged. Child, now as cowardly as he had before been treacherous, despatched a deputation to the Mogul emperor, to demand grace, and the English envoys were led into his presence with their hands tied behind them. The monarch, however, feeling the advantages that his subjects derived from their commerce with the English, was not inflexible, but after insisting on the dismission of Child, and on a compensation to his subjects who had been robbed, he restored to the English the privilege of a free trade throughout his dominions.

The loss sustained by the company, through this iniquity of its servants, was irretrievable, and the revolution and war that succeeded it accelerated the ruin of its affairs. A general outcry was at this time also raised against the injustice of monopolies, and against that of the East India Company in particular. The business was at last brought before parliament, in which it was determined that a new company should be established under its sanction, on advancing £2,000,000 to government at eight per cent. interest, and that the old company, which derived its privileges from the crown alone, should be permitted to continue its trade till the expiration of its charter, which was not far distant.

After the old and new companies had endeavoured to ruin each other for some time, they wisely put an end to hostilities by a union in 1702. In 1708 the company lent a farther sum of £1,200,000 to government without interest, which reduced the interest of the whole debt due to it to five per cent., and for this advance the charter was extended, and it received the title of the United Company of Merchants trading to the East Indies.

The English first sent ships to China in 1634, and in 1677 were permitted to establish a factory at Amoy, and to trade to Canton.

The company's charter, granted in 1708, was prolonged from time to time, and in 1730 it was renewed for thirty-three years, on consideration of the reduction of the interest of the debt due to it by government, from five to three per cent., by the means of another loan without interest. In 1744 the war between England and France reduced the commerce of the latter in India for a time, but peace again restored the French affairs, which became more flourishing than

ever.

At this period we may date the first coinmencement of the British dominion in India, which now, like a mighty Colossus, rests either foot on the utmost limits of the East. As early

as the year 1640 the English received permission to build a factory at Hoogly, but they were prohibited from fortifying it in any manner, and an ensign and thirty soldiers, as an honorary guard to the factors, was the only military force allowthem to the exactions of the natives, in 1686 they attempted to establish a defensive post by force of arms, which entirely failed; but in 1689 they received permission to establish a factory at Sootenutty, ten miles below Hoogly, and about the same time they were allowed a free trade, on payment of an annual sum in lieu of customs. In 1696 the petty princes on the west side of the Hoogly took up arms against the nabob of Bengal, and made a rapid progress, taking Hoogly, and other towns of consequence. On this occasion all the European factors in Bengal declared for the nabob, and, demanded permission to put their factories in a state of defence against the common enemy, and the nabob in general terms desiring them to provide for their own safety, they immediately fortified their own factories; the Dutch at Chinsurah, the French at Chandernagore, and the English built Fort William, close to their factory at Sootenutty, to which they have given the name of Calcutta, and which, together with a small territory round it, they were permitted to purchase from the zemindar or Indian proprietor. Such was the slender foundation of the immense fabric of British dominion in India.

From the invasion of Nadir Shah in 1738, the Mogul empire was torn in pieces, as we have intimated, by different factions and pretenders to the crown, until it was at length reduced to a state of total debility in 1753. During these troubles we have also seen that both the French and English had gradually extended their influence on the continent, and in 1747 the latter had obtained the revenues of Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa. It was not to be expected that the rival European nations would long remain tranquil under the observation of each other's increasing power. In the war of 1756 Chandernagore and all its dependencies were taken from the French, the loss of Masulapatam, Mahé, and Carrical followed, while the French captured the English settlements on Sumatra. The adverse squadrons had also frequent but indecisive engagements, but the French were at last obliged to quit the Coromandel coast, and leave the English masters of the navigation of the Bay of Bengal. Pondicherry was taken in 1761, and at the same time all the natives of France found in the Carnatic were sent to Europe.

By the peace of 1763 all the French possessions in India were restored, on condition of constructing no fortification in Bengal; but their power in India had received too severe a shock to be ever able to recover itself.

From the commencement of the eighteenth century, Holland being at peace, except during the latter part of the American war, the Dutch retained their possessions, and carried on their commerce in the Indian seas undisturbed, until the French revolution drew them into its vortex. The Cape of Good Hope, Ceylon, Malacca, and the Spice Islands, were captured by the En_lish

in 1795, at the same time that they lost all the settlements on the continent of India. By the peace of Amiens their establishments were restored, except Ceylon, which was confirmed to the English. In the late war the Dutch again lost all their settlements in India, but recovered them, with the exception of the Cape of Good Hope, by the peace of Paris.

It is sufficient to observe further that, with the exception of the capture of Calcutta by the nabob Surajah Dowla, in 1756, but which was

INDIAN ARROW-ROOT, n. s. Latin maranta. A root. A sovereign remedy for the bite of wasps, and the poison of the manchineel tree. This root the Indians apply to extract the venom of their arrows.- -Miller.

INDIAN CRESS, n. s. Lat. acriviola. A plant. INDIAN FIG, n. s. Lat. opuntia. A plant. IN'DIAN RED, n. s. Is a species of ochre; a very fine purple earth, and of a firm compact texture, and great weight.

INDIANA, one of the United States of North America, formed in 1816. It is bounded north by the north-west territory, Michigan Lake and territory; east by the state of Ohio; south by Ohio River, which separates it from Kentucky; and west by the state of Illinois. Long. 84° 42' to 87°49′ W., lat. 37° 45′ to 41° 52′ N. It is 284 miles long from north to south, and 155 from east to west; containing about 37,000 square miles. There are no slaves in this State. In 1810 it contained four counties and twenty-seven townships. The number of militia, in 1815, amounted to 15,171. The counties, chief towns, and population, in 1815, are thus exhibited :

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recovered the following year, the progress of our territorial power in India has been uninterrupted; and that in 1765 we were quietly in possession of Bengal, Bahar, and Orissa, nominally indeed as tributaries to the Mogul, but who was a mere puppet in the hands of the British; and that since that period the company has been engaged in almost continual wars with the native princes, from whom it has acquired the absolute dominion of above one-half of the peninsula. See HINDOSTAN.

considerable towns are Vevay, Brookville, Jeffersonville, and Madison. All these, with the exception of Vincennes are new, and have risen suddenly into notice. There are many others recently established, some of which are very flourishing.

The legislature is composed of a senate and house of representatives. The representatives are elected annually, and the members of the senate once in three years. The governor and lieutenant-governor are elected for three years, and may be re-elected once, The legislature meets on the first Monday in September.

The principal rivers are the Ohio, Wabash, White River, Whitewater, Tippecanoe, Illinois, Plein, Theakiki, St. Joseph's, and St. Mary's

There are no mountains in Indiana; the country, however, is more hilly than the territory of Illinois, particularly towards Ohio River. A range of hills, called the Knobs, extends from the falls of the Ohio to the Wabash, in a southwest direction, which in many places produces a broken and uneven surface. North of these hills lie the flat woods, seventy miles wide. Bordering on all the principal streams, except the Ohio, there are strips of bottom and prairie land; both together from three to six miles in width. Between the Wabash and lake Michigan the country is mostly champaign, abounding alternately with woodlands, prairies, lakes, and swamps.

A range of hills runs parallel with the Ohio, from the mouth of the Great Miami to Blue River, alternately approaching to within a few rods, and receding to the distance of two miles. Immediately below Blue River the hills disappear, and there is presented to view an immense tract of level land, covered with a heavy growth of timber. North of the Wabash, between Tippecanoe and Ouitanan, the banks of the streams are high, abrupt, and broken, and the land, except the prairies, is well timbered. Between the Plein and Theakiki the country is flat, wet, and swampy, interspersed with prairies of an inferior soil. The sources of rivers are generally in swamps or lakes, and the country around them is low, and too wet for cultivation.

There are two kinds of prairies, the river and the upland prairies: the former are bottoms destitute of timber, and are said to exhibit vestiges of former cultivation; the latter are from thirty to 100 feet more elevated, and are far more numerous and extensive. Some of them are not larger than a common field, while others extend farther than the eye can reach. They are usually bounded by heavy timbered forests, and not unfrequently

adorned with copses of small trees.
In spring
and summer they are covered with a luxuriant
growth of grass and fragrant flowers, from six to
eight feet high. The soil of these plains is often
as deep and fertile as the best bottoms. The
prairies bordering on the Wabash are particularly
rich. Wells have been dug in them, where the
vegetable soil was twenty-two feet deep, under
which was a stratum of fine white sand. The
ordinary depth is from two to five feet. The
principal productions are wheat, Indian corn,
rye, oats, barley, buck-wheat, potatoes, pulse,
beef, pork, butter, whiskey, and peach-brandy.

The climate is generally healthy and pleasant. The Wabash is frozen over in the winter, so that it may be safely crossed on the ice. More than one-half of the land in this state yet remains in the possession of the Indians.

Not far from Big Blue River there is a large cave, the entrance of which is on the side of a hill, that is about 400 feet high. Here are found great quantities of sulphate of magnesia, or Epsom salt, and of nitre, &c. INDICANT, adj.) Fr. indication; Lat. INDICATE, v. a. indico. That which INDICATION, n. s. points out: indicate, to INDICATIVE, adj. direct a point to: indiINDICATIVELY, adv. cation, mark; token; INDICTION, n. s. sign; symptom; disINDICT', v. a. covery; or explanation: indicative, showing; informing: a certain modification of a verb, expressing affirmation or indication indiction, declaration or proclamation. Indict. See INDITE.

These be the things that govern nature principally, and without which you cannot make any true analysis, and indication of the proceedings of nature.

INDICATION, in medicine (indicatio; from indico, to show). An indication is that which demonstrates in a disease what ought to be done. It is three-fold; preservative, which preserves health; curative, which expels a present disease ; and vital, which respects the powers and reasons of diet. The scope from which indications are taken, or determined, is comprehended in this distich:

Ars, ætas, regio, complexio, virtus, Mos et symptoma, repletio, tempus, et usus. The INDICTION, in chronology, instituted by Constantine the Great, is properly a cycle of tributes, orderly disposed, for fifteen years, and by it accounts of that kind were kept. Afterwards, in memory of the great victory obtained by Constantine over Mezentins, 8 Cal. October 312, by which an entire freedom was given to Christianity, the Council of Nice, for the honor of Corstantine, ordained that the accounts of years should be no longer kept by the Olympiads, which till that time had been done; but that, instead thereof, the indiction should be made use of, by which to reckon and date their years, which hath its epocha A. D. 313, January 1.

INDICTMENT, in English law, is a written accusation of one or more persons of a crime or misdemeanor, preferred to, and presented upon oath by, a grand jury. To this end,' says Blackstone, The sheriff of every county is bound to return to every session of the peace, and every commission of oyer and terminer, and of general gaol delivery, twenty-four good and lawful men of the county, some out of every hundred, to enquire, present, do, and execute all those things, which on the part of our lord the king shall then and there be commanded them. They ought to be freeholders; but to what amount is uncertain. As many as appear upon this pannel are sworn These images, formed in the brain, are indicatively upon the grand jury, to the amount of twelve at of the same species with those of sense. Grew. The frequent stops they make in the most convenient places, are a plain indication of their weariness. Addison.

Bacon's Natural History.

After a legation ad res repetendas, and a refusal, and a denunciation and indiction of a war, the war is left at large.

Bacon.

The verb is formed in a certain manner to affirm, deny, or interrogate; which formation, from the principal use of it, is called the indicative mood.

Clarke's Latin Grammer.

We think that our successes are a plain indication Atterbury. of the divine favour towards us.

The depravation of the instruments of mastication is a natural indication of a liquid diet. Arbuthnot.

If a person that had a fair estate in reversion should be assured by some skilful physician, that he would inevitably fall into a disease that would totally deprive him of his understanding and memory; if, say, upon a certain belief of this indication, the man should appear overjoyed at the news, would not all that saw him conclude that the distemper had seized Bentley.

him?

Through the waved branches, o'er the greensward glancing,

'Midst other indications of festivity, Seeing a troop of his domestics dancing Like dervises who turn as on a pivot.

Byron. Don Juan. As an accomplishment, therefore, and as an agree able indication of youthful gaiety, it must no doubt be considered. Canning's Microcosm,

the least, and not more than twenty-three; that twelve may be a majority. Which number, as well as the constitution itself, we find exactly described so early as the laws of king Ethelred: Exeant seniores duodecim Thani, et præfectus cum eis, ut jurent super sanctuarium quod eis in manus datur, quod nolint ullum innocentem accusare, nec aliquem noxium celare. In the time of king Richard I. (according to Hoveden) the process of electing the grand jury, ordained by that prince, was as follows:-Four knights were to be taken from the county at large, who chose two more out of every hundred; which two associated to themselves ten other principal freemen, and those twelve were to answer concerning all particulars relative to their own district. This number was probably found too large and inconvenient; but the traces of this institution still remain, in that some of the jury must be summoned out of every hundred. This grand jury are previously instructed in the articles of their enquiry by a charge from the judge who presides upon the bench. They then withdraw to sit and receive indictments, which are preferred to them in the name of the king, but at the suit of any private prosecutor; and they are only to hear evidence on behalf of the pro

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