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WORKS BY CHARLES DARWIN, F.R.S.

LÍFE, AND LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN. With

an Autobiograpbical Chapter. Edited by FRANCIS DARWIN. Portraits.

3 vols. 36s. NATURALIST'S JOURNAL OF RESEARCHES INTO THE

NATURAL HISTORY AND GEOLOGY OF COUNTRIES VISITED during a Voyag: ROUND THE WORLD. With 100 Illustrations by PRITCHETT. 215. Popular

Edition. Woodcuts. 38. 6d. ORIGIN OF SPECIES BY MEANS OF NATURAL SELEC

TION; or, THE PRESERVATION OF FAVOURED RACES IN THE STRUGGLE FOR

LIFE. Large Type Edition, with Portrait. 2 vols. 125. Popular Edition, 6s. VARIOUS CONTRIVANCES BY WHICH ORCHIDS ARE

FERTILIZED BY INSECTS. Woodcuts. 78. 6d. VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS UNDER DO

MESTICATION. Illustrations. 15s. DESCENT OF MAN, AND SELECTION IN RELATION TO

SEX. Illustrations. Large 'Type Edition, 2 vols. 158. Popular Edition,

78, 6d. EXPRESSION OF THE EMOTIONS IN MAN AND

ANIMALS. Illustrations. 128. INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS. Illustrations. 98. MOVEMENTS AND HABITS OF CLIMBING PLANTS.

Woodcuts. 6s. EFFECTS OF CROSS AND SELF-FERTILIZATION IN

THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM. Illustrations. 98. DIFFERENT FORMS OF FLOWERS ON PLANTS OF

THE SAME SPECIES, Illustrations, 78, 6d. LIFE OF ERASMUS DARWIN. 78. 6d. POWER OF MOVEMENT IN PLANTS. FORMATION OF VEGETABLE MOULD THROUGH THE

ACTION OF WORMS. Woodcuts. 68. FACTS AND ARGUMENTS FOR DARWIN. By FRITZ MÜLLER. 6s.

The above works are Published by JOHN MURRAY. STRUCTURE AND DISTRIBUTION OF CORAL REEFS.

SMITH, ELDER & CO. GEOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON VOLCANIC ISLANDS AND PARTS OF SOUTH AMERICA,

SMITH, ELDER & CO. MONOGRAPH OF THE CIRRIPEDIA. Illustrations. 2 vols. 8vo.

RAY SOCIETY. MONOGRAPH OF THE FOSSIL LEPADIDÆ, OR PEDUNCULATED CIRRIPEDS OF GREAT BRITAIN.

PALÆONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY. MONOGRAPH OF THE FOSSIL BALANIDÆ AND VERRUCIDÆ OF GREAT BRITAIN.

PALÆONTOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY.

LONDON: PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,

STAMTORD STREET AND OHARING CROSS.

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DURING the successive reprints of the first edition of this work, published in 1871, I was able to introduce several important corrections; and now that more time has elapsed, I have endeavoured to profit by the fiery ordeal through which the book has passed, and have taken advantage of all the criticisms, which seem to me sound. I am also greatly indebted to a large number of correspondents for the communication of a surprišing number of new facts and remarks. These have been so numerous, that I have been able to use only the more important ones; and of these, as well as of the more important corrections, I will append a list. Some new illustrations have been introduced, and four of the old drawings have been replaced by better ones, done from life by Mr. T. W. Wood. I must especially call attention to some observations which I owe to the kindness of Prof. Huxley (given as a supplement at the end of Part I.), on the nature of the differences between the brains of man and the higher apes. I have been particularly glad to give these observations, because during the last few years several memoirs on the subject have appeared on the Continent, and their importance has been, in some cases, greatly exaggerated by popular writers.

I may take this opportunity of remarking that my critics frequently assume that I attribute all changes of corporeal structure and mental power exclusively to the natural selection of such variations as are often called spontaneous; whereas, even in the first edition of the Origin of Species,' I distinctly stated that great weight must be attributed to the inherited effects of use and disuse, with respect both to the body and mind. I also attributed some amount of modification to the direct and prolonged action of changed conditions of life. Some allowance, ton, must be made for occasional reversions of

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struoturo; nor must we forget what I have called “ correlated * growth, meaning, thereby, that various parts of the organisation are in some unknown manner so connected, that when one part varies, so do others and if variations in tho one are accumulated by selection, other parts will be modified. Again, it has been said by several critics, that when I found that many details of structure in man could not be explained through natural selection, I invented sexual selection; I gave, however, a tolerably clear sketch of this principle in the first edition of the Origin of Species,' and I there stated that it was applicable to man. This subject of sexual selection has been treated at full length in the present work, simply because an opportunity was here first afforded me. I have been struck with the likeness of many of the half-favourable criticisms on sexual selection, with those which appeared at first on natural selection; such as, that it would explain some few details, but certainly was not applicable to the extent to which I have employed it. My conviction of the power of sexual selection remains unshaken; but it is probable, or almost certain, that several of my conclusions will hereafter be found erroneous; this can hardly fail to be the case in the first treatment of a subject. When naturalists have become familiar with the idea of sexual selection, it will, as I believe, be much more largely accepted; and it has already been fully and favourably received by several capable judges.

DOWN, BECKETHAY, KENT,

Septomber 1874.

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