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bilities of the parents. We live in a world of our own and give the children as much experience as is compatible with their condition. Practice alone will cause in the will an aptness for moral action, hence we strive to awaken the slumbering forces and faculties, and develop them so that the pupil will gradually be enabled to continue self-culture. Father Gerend is wont to say: "If a child cannot stand on its own feet while at school, it never will.” Therefore all our efforts go to the forming of characters, industrious, thrifty, honest and gentlemanly Christians.

Life as it is guides these, our efforts. We consider both the pupil as he comes to school, uncouth at times, coarse, more animal than man, and the life he is to be 'surrounded with when he leaves school. We study each child as it enters the institution. Much freedom is given the newcomer in order the better to discover his character and idiosyncrasies. Apparently free from all restraint he soon betrays his characteristics, and then only can we begin to correct possible faults and improve the good traits. Environment has a great influence upon the character of a person. The dining room where animality tends most to assert itself is beautiful and neatly kept and at once warns the pupil that the coarse manners of the home are here quite out of place. The system of short tables seating six, makes it home-like, lending at the same time to classification and control of the pupils. A larger boy or girl is placed at the head of the tables with the smaller ones.

Credit marks of Christian politeness to be seen in every classroom are a wonderful incentive for the children to make gentlemen and ladies of themselves. Even the constitutions of the athletic club and reading circles insist upon gentlemanly conduct under pain of exclusion for a specified time. The Roll of Honor fosters the sense of honor among the pupils and gives them a noble pride to excel in all that is good. The Roll of Honor in the catechism room presupposes both application to their lessons and still more the practical application in daily life of what they have learned. Thus serious misconduct is punishable by having the delinquent erase his own name from the roll, or in extreme cases, by having him write his name on the list of

"black sheep." No way is so painful, so humiliating, no punishment so effective as this latter punishment. And very few there have been who have deserved it during the last year. As the names on the Roll of Honor are occasionally published in our monthly magazine, "Our Young People," this roll has prestige among the pupils.

Honesty, so difficult to implant in the hearts of the young, is given every test. We have but few locked doors. The children have access to nearly every room of the house. For three years my rooms adjoined the classrooms and during all that period I never locked my door, leaving candy and fruit and money lie on my open desk. Only thrice have I missed something. In every case I have found the culprit, two of them being newcomers. The general opinion is that the money or fruit is placed there as a temptation and that it is better to leave it there.

To demonstrate the value of money, to help acquire the habit of saving seems to be beyond the scope of the school curriculum. Still these are necessary elements in the formation of character. For this purpose we make use of institution chips. Every inmate of the institution is set to work about the house and receives his monthly allowance in these chips. These are honored full value as cash. Club fees are paid, candy and fruit, books. and articles of clothing can be bought. Those given to sweets soon learn that money can more profitably be spent by paying club fees as those who do not pay may not play with the club. The pupils in paying for their sports which we would-be obliged to furnish at any rate, appreciate them the more, take better care of their playthings and thus acquire the habit of economy. Accuracy of accounts is insisted upon by a system of hookkeeping in which are the individual accounts for the receipts and expenditures. Neatness and punctuality in the performance of all work are required to draw full pay. The total amount thus given the children during this last year amounted to over one hundred dollars; but as Father Gerend says: "The investment is well made."

Coeducation, this much mooted question, deserves special consideration. Many are the dangers connected therewith and the general results are such as to call forth the strongest condemna

tion. Still it must not be thus. Is not home training practical coeducation? Do we not find it in our parochial schools? If so, then under proper religious management and environment it can also be successfully put into practice at an institution, and at St. John's Institute we dare say that this system is in vogue without having the least noticeable evil results. We rather firmly believe that this system is not only beneficial for the pupil at school, but also strengthens him and offsets many a temptation when he leaves school.

Our school is a home. Many inmates are brother and sister, and are permitted to converse freely. Namedays and birthdays are celebrated as though the children were members of one family. Boys and girls work together in the laundry, they eat together in the same refectory. Girls take interest in the match games of the boys, and, vice versa. The children are free and natural, still they instinctively guard the limits of propriety. They are always under close observation but in such a manner as not to arouse the least suspicion. The principle followed in this association of boys and girls is, never to have them together unless mind and hand are busy.

The happiness and contentment of the children are fixed and enhanced by the religious spirit which hovers about the institute. We consider it our prime duty to imbue them with the principles and ideals of religion so thoroughly, ground them so firmly in their holy Faith, that nothing in later life will shake it or rob them of this most precious gift. They must feel at home among the good and quite uncomfortable when evil companions approach. They should feel such remorse after a possible fall, as to quickly rise and become even better. These principles are imparted in their daily catechism instruction given by one of the priests at the institute. Deaf-mutes more than hearing children learn by living example. For thirty-three years the boys especially have had before them a model in every respect. His ennobling influence is felt in every particular, his word is respected, he himself beloved and revered by all who have ever had him as a teacher. This gentleman is our esteemed Mr. L. W. Mihm. Again the presence of the religious garb and the loving hearts that beat beneath, the self-sacrificing yet withal cheerful life of

the good Sisters cannot fail in exerting an elevating influence upon our charges.

Great care is exercised in admitting them to the sacraments. Unlike other children, the deaf are more advanced in age before they are able to express their ideas in writing, they are capable of greater faults and consequently must have a better understanding of the malice of sin in order to receive the sacraments with profit to their souls. There is a notion prevalent that absolution may be given upon the cognizance of mere outward signs of contrition on the part of the deaf-mute. Likewise that Holy Communion may be administered upon the mere supposition that the deaf realize a difference and distinction between the Holy Eucharist and ordinary bread. To act on these principles were to make the reception of the sacraments a mere ceremony. This may have been allowed in former ages when the deafmutes received no education and when the Church made every allowance in their favor. But to-day the deaf-mute is educated in every secular branch. He is placed upon a level with the hearing in many respects, and, consequently, the same conditions hold good in reference to the worthy reception of the sacraments which bind the normal hearing person. In laying great stress upon the first admission to the sacraments we have in view the long instructionless future of the children. It is precisely because of the special care on our part and because of the special efforts demanded from the pupils that we attribute success in inculcating religion so deeply and so effectually.

All children able to do so, go to confession every two months; those preparing for first Communion do so every month, while such as have already received are at liberty to go as often as they desire, which is every week or every two weeks. The presence of a shrine on the grounds draws many a devotee to the feet of Mary. A weekly visit to the chapel of the woods is enjoyed by all. They are familiar with the grand central devotions of the Church suggested by the changing seasons of the ecclesiastical year. The beautiful chapel above all impresses upon them the correct notion of religious service. All decoration is adapted to their wants and reminds them of the holiness of the place and increases their devotion at prayer. They cannot look around

without finding a picture of Christ, be it as a babe, or a child in the temple or in the work shop, or as one who loved little children. Looking upward they see Christ healing the deaf-mute. The stations and the Last Supper are ever before them while the life of St. John in five oil paintings forms a beautiful frieze above the stations; indeed an instruction for them every time they enter for their daily Mass or Sunday devotion.

It is according to the system just outlined that we endeavor to accomplish our aim and purpose as stated above. Though much may seem ideal, all is based upon sound, pedagogical principles. Moreover, the system has had a natural and healthy growth and is in every particular adapted to the conditions existing at our school. To convince yourselves of the actual results of our methods it will be necessary to visit the institution. You will find the general conduct and deportment of the pupils unsurpassed by any institution of its kind in the States. The critical eye of the State inspector for the schools for the deaf and that of the president of the Wisconsin Phonological Institute found nothing to criticize, and these gentlemen openly stated that it was impossible to accomplish such splendid results in their own institutions. The good reports received from parents and pastors are another most emphatic approval and approbation of our methods. Many of the pupils are thrifty, and have acquired considerable property. They attend Sunday Mass regularly, and receive the sacraments frequently. The many letters I have received from former pupils as a rule contain such gratifying passages: "I went to Communion last Sunday," or "I shall receive next Sunday." Should they marry, experience shows that it will not be with a non-Catholic until the latter has received instruction and been baptized. Grateful for the education they have received they remember us during the Christmas season with a little donation. We can expect no more.

In this final chapter, I beg permission to draw your attention to our efforts beyond the classroom. There are three priests devoted entirely to the cause. Be it remembered that we do not depend upon the diocese for a collection The board and tuition. fee is extremely low, being only twelve dollars a month. Very few, however, pay even this amount. The average sum paid per

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