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shudder of fear passed over all, for they knew that it was the Lord. Then I thought they all began to make excuse, saying, that they knew not that it was he, else they would have rescued him from the pursuer. But the Lord vanished from before them, and, as at the feast of Belshazzar, burning characters blazed upon the wall, revealing these words: Inasmuch as ye did it not to one of the least of these, ye did it not to me.

Then said the Abolitionist:

How long will it be before the Church will understand her natural duty to a Fugitive Slave, and to all who are in bonds?

I cannot tell precisely, said the clergyman.

Then one of his brethren said: I think I know. It will be just as soon as she shall incur no popular odium in performing it.

LXIX.

THE QUALIFIED CITIZEN.

Only he who owns a Slave is entitled to Citizenship in the Territories of the Union.

A RESIDENT of one of the free states of the Union called upon the President's Lawyer, for information concerning the qualifications for citizenship in the unoccupied territories of the Republic, declaring it to be his intention, if he possessed the proper requisites, to remove and settle in the valley of the Kansas.

And the Lawyer, congratulating him on his purpose, set forth, in few words, what he considered the necessary qualifications. Said he:

You are aware that the Constitution of the Union was ordained to establish Liberty and Justice, as is stated in the preamble to that instrument. That is still the ostensible, and many still think that to be yet its real purpose. This is an error, as I will briefly make plain to you.

The progress of society is a species of cyclical movement, an advance from comparative freedom. to despotism, and then back again from despotism to freedom-a progress round and round forever, to and from the same points. This is a fundamen (313)

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tal postulate in all political philosophy. A steady advance, in the style of an ever-growing and everexpanding movement, is neither possible for the individual nor society. Constitutions of government should always be formed with reference to this principle. If legislators commence with a nation which is already free, they should plant in the constitutions they ordain, ordinances which will eventuate in despotism. They can trust to Providence for the despotism to dissolve and melt away again into freedom. I am happy to say that the framers of our American Constitution seem to have had these principles in view. Taking the nation in its free stage of development, they inserted in the Constitution the element of despotism with so much skill, that it could unfold itself without violent convulsions to society, and almost imperceptibly. The despotic element consists in that provision which makes three Slaveholders equal to five Non-Slaveholders. Our national history thus far has been the history of the progress of the Slave Power to absolute dominion. For when there is no equilibrium between the ruling powers of a state, and one controls all the rest, there is a despotism. England, for example, is free, because there is an equilibrium between the King, Lords, and Commens. Russia is a despotism, because the regal power embodied in the Autocrat subdues and domineers over the Lords and the unemancipated Commons. Our country is free, because there is at present an equilibrium between the Slaveholders and the People. But according to the princi

ples of political philosophy, which require society to alternate incessantly between the opposite states of freedom and despotism, it is high time that the original freedom of the nation should give place to the absolute authority of the Slaveholders. The era of popular Justice and Liberty passed away with the decease of the fathers of the Republic, and we are now advanced to the era of the unlimited sway of the Slave Power. This latter era is justified by natural law, you perceive.

Now it is the highest duty of statesmen, as well as private persons, to obey all manner of natural laws, and aid their development. By no cabinet which has ever administered the American government, has this duty been more clearly seen, and more ardently conformed to, than by the present. Having the control of the Democracy, we thought we could engage it in no nobler mission than in setting it to work to establish the rule of the Slave Power, and make it act as obstetric physician in giving birth to that despotism toward which society naturally tends. But the obstetric art has its difficulties no less than other arts; and a beneficent despotism cannot be born from the womb of the People without terrible throes, even when the Democracy officiates as midwife.

To explain: In enthroning the Slave Power, the government has found it necessary to establish the principle that Slavery exists by natural law in all the territories of the Republic. But we could not openly declare it to the People, for fear they might become restive under its application. To keep

them quiet we proclaimed the principle of Popular Sovereignty, by which the People were led to suppose that they were to establish their own institutions anywhere in the territories. But while we proclaimed this doctrine, we managed, by aid of the Army of the Union and regiments of volunteer Slaveholders, to determine who the People should be. The Army and the militia of Slaveholders have practically settled this question: He only is one of the People, qualified to reside in the territories, who either owns a negro, or is anxious to get one. After the Army and Border Ruffians have enforced this principle for a year, the People will acquiesce in it. They will acquiesce, because the natural current of our political affairs is toward despotism, and acquiescence is the order of the day. So it will not be long ere the People will come to believe that Slavery exists by natural law in all virgin territories, and then it will exist in them. Meantime, while the Army of the Union and the volunteer Slaveholders-commonly called Border Ruffiansare teaching the People the proper qualifications for citizenship, it has been necessary, on account of their indocility and intractable character, to put many of them to death openly, to assassinate others, to insult their women, and burn their houses. This would look exceedingly bad, were it not done under the shadow of the national flag; but fortunately the Stars and Stripes of the Union have waved and are waving over the whole procedure. We hope to add additional facilities to these operations by passing through Congress a new Popular

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