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neighbour was productive of scarcely less satisfaction and advantage than to the Romans themselves; whereas Veii was abandoned by its own nation, and only the adjacent towns of Capena and Falerii, along with Tarquinii, furnished contingents to its help.—Mommsen's History of Rome (Dickson's translation).

Translate the following passage into Latin Hexameters :

But we will combat for our fathers' land,
And we will drain the life-blood where we stand,
To save our children :-fight ye side by side,
And serried close, ye men of youthful pride,
Disdaining fear, and deeming light the cost
Of life itself in glorious battle lost.
Leave not our sires to stem the unequal fight,
Whose limbs are nerved no more with buoyant might.
Nor, lagging backward, let the younger breast
Permit the man of age (a sight unbless'd)
To welter in the combat's foremost thrust,
His hoary head dishevell❜d in the dust,
And venerable bosom bleeding bare.
But youth's fair form, though fallen, is ever fair,
And beautiful in death the boy appears,
The hero boy, that dies in blooming years:
In man's regret he lives, and woman's tears,
More sacred than in life, and lovelier far,
For having perished in the front of war.

CAMPBELL, from Tyrtæus.

Translate the following passage into Greek Prose :


Alexander proceeded to Tyre, the place appointed for the meeting of army, fleet, and embassies. There the Athenian sacred ship Paralus arrived, bringing Diophantus and Achilles, ministers from the Athenian people, accompanied by ministers from several other republics. All came commissioned to represent that, in the absence of the captain-general of the nation, the repose of Greece was threatened by the ambition of Agis, king of Lacedæmon; and that already it had been declared to some Peloponnesian states, that, unless they would renounce the general confederacy under the king of Macedonia, and engage in a league adverse to it, they would be treated as enemies. Against this, therefore, support was solicited and claimed.-MITFORD'S Greece.

Translate the following passage into Greek Tragic Trimeters :

What can be avoided

Whose end is purpos'd by the mighty gods?
Yet Cæsar shall go forth: for these predictions
Are to the world in general, as to Cæsar.

Calphurnia. When beggars die, there are no comets seen;
The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes.
Cesar. Cowards die many times before their deaths;
The valiant never taste of death but once.
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard,

It seems to me most strange that men should fear;
Seeing that death, a necessary end,

Will come when it will come.

SHAKSPEARE, Julius Cæsar, act ii. sc. 2.



1. Two rafters, AB, AC, of a roof whose pitch is 23° 30′, are tied by a wrought iron rod whose section is ths of a square inch; what weight suspended from A will break the tie, the tenacity of wrought iron being estimated at 67,200 lbs. per square inch?

2. A river wall of Aberdeen granite (specific gravity 2.625), 19 feet high, has a rectangular section; the depth of the water is 14.12 feet. Find the thickness of the wall when the line of resistance cuts the base 4 inches within the extrados.

3. A river wall of Aberdeen granite, whose section is a right-angled triangle, and the thickness of whose base is 9 feet, just supports the pressure of water when its surface is on a level with the top of the wall; find its height when the perpendicular is turned towards the water.

4. A mass of earth the specific gravity of which is 1.8, whose surface is horizontal, presses against a revêtement wall whose top is on the level of the ground, and height 15 feet, the natural slope of the earth being 30°; determine the pressure of the earth on each foot of the length of the wall.

5. If the wall in the last question is of brickwork, weighing 112 lbs. per cubic foot, and has a rectangular section, determine its thickness to enable it to sustain the pressure of the earth.

6. A wall of brickwork, 3 feet thick and 27 feet high, sustains on the inner edge of its summit a certain pressure on every foot of its length; the direction of this pressure is inclined to the horizon at an angle of 45°. Find its amount when it will just not overthrow the wall.

7. How great a strain will a cylindrical bar of wrought iron bear whose diameter is 1.3 inches?

8. Determine the elongation of a cylindrical steel bar whose diameter is 4th of an inch, and whose length is 35 feet, when subjected to a strain of 50 tons, the modulus of elasticity being 29,000,000.

9. A beam fixed at one end only is loaded uniformly; find the greatest bending moment.



1. At one time ammonia was looked upon as a base, but a different view is now entertained; write the rational formula of sulphate of ammonium upon the old and the new hypothesis.

2. A mixture of oxygen and nitrogen measured 53 cubic inches; upon adding hydrogen to it, it measured 99 cubic inches; and when exploded with the electric spark, it was reduced to 33 cubic inches. How much oxygen, and how much nitrogen, existed in the mixture?

3. Give the process for making chlorate of potash, and explain the re


4. What is the formula for the products of the explosion of a gunpowder consisting of


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5. What volume of hydrochloric acid gas is one ounce of salt capable of yielding, the temperature being 60°, and pressure 30?

6. What is the group of metals whose solutions in hydrochloric acid, if slightly acidulous, are not precipitated by sulphide of hydrogen ?



7. How would you make the analysis of a hydraulic lime composed of active and inactive silex, of alumina, peroxide of iron, lime, and a little magnesia?

8. A native sulphur salt was found to consist of



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Investigate the rational formula which most accurately represents the above results.

9. Enumerate the native oxides of manganese; give the formula of each; and explain the process of Bunsen for determining the amount of pure pyrolusite equivalent to 100 grains of a given native oxide.

10. Give the crystalline system and the formula of grey copper ore (Fahlerz); and enumerate the different metals which may enter into the composition of its basic sulphides.

11. What is the formula of spathose iron, its crystalline system, and the difference between it and clay iron stone?

12. Mention the crystalline system of Würfelerz; the actual form in which it is usually found; and the rational formula by which its composition is represented.

13. Give Rose's notation of a dodecahedron in the third system, and of an octahedron in the second, fourth, fifth, and sixth systems.

14. Suppose a kaolin having the composition represented by the formula, Al2O3, SiO3, 2HO, to have proceeded from the decomposition of felspar, what change has this latter mineral undergone ?

15. Pyromorphite and mimetese might be mistaken for each other; are they most readily distinguished?


16. Name the salt which is most effective as a reducing agent in blowpipe experiments; explain how it is made; and give the formula by which its composition is represented.


17. There are two distinct volumetric processes for determining the amount of a protosalt of iron in a solution; explain what the processes are; and give the reactions which occur in the application of each.

18. Give the formulæ and crystalline systems of the leading ores of lead and copper.


1. In a railway tunnel, 972 yds. long, and rising at the rate of 1 in 180, it is required to set out the proper depth to commence the invert at the mouth on the upper or higher front; the level of the line of rails at the lower face is 286.55 ft. above datum; and in all transverse sections of the tunnel the level of the rails is 2 ft. 6 in. above the top of the invert at the centre line, and the invert itself is 4 half brick rings thick; the nearest convenient BM at the upper face is given in the Field-book as 310.45 above datum; on levelling from this BM to the point at the upper mouth, where the invert is to be laid, I find the ground is 10. 20 below it. What directions must therefore be given to the contractor?

2. A sluice, having a square opening 1.414 ft. in the side, has the sill 9.707 ft. below the still-water level; the discharge, being measured into a tank, was found in 1 minute 15 seconds to give 2166.5 cub. ft. Compute the coefficient of contraction in this particular case.

3. Calculate the diameter of a pipe which, in conjunction with another 30 in. in diameter, will discharge the quantity delivered by one large main of 42 in. diameter; the inclination being the same in all three, namely, 12 ft. per mile.

4. Calculate the discharge of an artificial watercourse, the breadth at the bottom being 2 ft. 6 in., the sides of dry rubble work having slopes of to 1, and the uniform fall being 5 ft. per mile, and the water flowing with a depth of 3 ft.

5. In a channel whose section is a trapezium, having 60 sq. ft. area, and depth of water 3 ft., the fall being 1 in 1320, and the rate of side slopes being 2 to 1; calculate the wetted perimeter, hydraulic mean depth, and discharge in cub. ft. per second.

6. The resulting velocity in the design for the channel in the last question being deemed too great, calculate the wetted perimeter and depth of another trapezium in which the velocity will be but 3 ft. per second; the discharge, side slopes, and fall being the same as in No. 5.

7. Compute the width of a rectangular channel whose depth is 7 ft., and which is to be of equivalent discharge with another 5 ft. deep and 30 ft. wide; the rate of fall being supposed the same in each channel; in the first place, deducing the equation by which it is determined, and subsequently applying it to these particular numbers.

8. Calculate a coefficient which, multiplied into the width in feet of the channel of any watercourse, will give the acres per mile required; and from this multiplier deduce an approximate rule for the same, and apply it to the determination of the land required for 800 yds. in length of the channels in Nos. 5 and 6; supposing that the water surface is 3 ft. below the land, and that the side slopes are carried up to it at the same rate, that is, at 2 to 1.

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