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13. Give an abstract and classification of the arguments for a future life attributed to Socrates in the Phædo.
14. In one of his dialogues Plato seems to speak of the human soul as created, in another he uses an argument which implies the essential eternity of the soul. (a) State this discrepancy, and give Archer Butler's solution, (b) together with his views of the Platonic conception of eternity.
15. Give a summary of Archer Butler's two Lectures on the Ethics of Plato.
16. Mr. Mill, with the approval of Bishop Fitzgerald, has pointed out an oversight in Bishop Butler's reasoning on the supposed presumption against revelation considered as miraculous. Discuss the question whether Butler is justly chargeable with this mistake.
Translate the following passages into English :—
I. Beginning, Σπεύσατέ μοι, κακὰ τέκνα, κατηφόνες· αἴθ ̓ ἅμα πάντες, κ. τ. λ.
Ending, Στή δ ̓ ἵππων προπάροιθεν, ἔπος τ' ἔφατ', ἔκ τ ̓ ὀνόμαζε HOMER, Iliad, lib. xxiv. 253-286. 2. Beginning, δέσποιν', ἃ Γολγώς τε καὶ Ἰδάλιον ἐφιλασας, κ. τ. λ. Ending, ὁ Μίλατος ἐρεῖ, χ ̓ ὡ τὰν Σαμίαν καταβόσκων. THEOCRITUS, Adon., 100–126.
3. Beginning, ΣΩ. ̓́Αρ ̓ οὖν καὶ ἡμᾶς οὕτω δεῖ πρῶτον, κ. τ. λ. Ending, καὶ οὐ καθ' ὁδόν, ὦ φίλε ̔Ερμόγενες.
PLATO, Cratylus, c. xxxv.
4. Beginning, Ταῦθ ̓ οὗτοι γραφῆναι μὲν ἐν ταῖς διαθήκαις, κ. τ. λ. Ending, εἰσελθεῖν τὰς πρὸς τουτουσὶ δίκας.
DEMOSTHENES, Contra Aphobumii, § 14.
I. a. Beginning, εἰσί τινες οἵ μ ̓ ἔλεγον ὡς καταδιαλλάγην, κ. τ. λ. Ending, εἶτα νῦν εξηπάτησεν ἡ χάραξ τὴν ἄμπελον. ARISTOPHANES, Vesp., 1284. b. Beginning, γλαῦκες ὑμᾶς οὔποτ' ἐπιλείψουσι Λαυριωτικαί· κ. τ. λ. Ending, ὥσπερ ἀνδριάντες.
Ibid., Aves, 1106.
c. Beginning, πρῶτον μὲν ἐχρῆν, ὥσπερ πόκον ἐν βαλανείῳ, κ. τ. λ. Ending, ἐπὶ ταῖς ἀρχαῖσι διαξῆναι καὶ τὰς κεφαλὰς αποτῖλαι.
Ibid., Lysistr., 574.
d. Beginning, ἔσται δ ̓ ἱππολόφων τε λόγων κορυθαίολα νείκη, κ.τ.λ. Ending, πνευμόνων πολὺν πόνον.
ARISTOPHANES, Ran., 818.
2. a. Beginning, βιάς ἀπημάντῳ σθένει, κ. τ. λ. Ending, σπεῦσαι τι τῶν βούλιος φέρει φρήν.
ESCHYLUS, Suppl., 570.
b. Beginning, ἐπολολύξατ ̓, ὦ, δεσποσύνων δόμων, κ. τ. λ. Ending, ἄνα γε μὰν, δόμοι.
Ibid., Choeph., 928.
3. a. Beginning, τὰ μακρὰ δ ̓ ἐξενέπειν ἐρύκει με τεθμὸς, κ. τ. λ. Ending, εὖ οἶδ' ὅτι χρόνος ἕρπων πεπρωμέναν τελέσει. PINDAR, Nem., 4–33.
b. Beginning, αὔξεται δ ̓ ἀρετά, χλωραῖς ἐέρσαις ὡς ὅτε δενδρεον ᾄσσει, κ. τ. λ. Ending, δὴ πάλαι καὶ πρὶν γενέσθαι τὴν ̓Αδράστου τάν τε Καδμείων ἔριν.
4. a. Beginning, καὶ εἰ τις ἰδίᾳ τινὰ δεδιὼς ἄρα, κ. τ. λ. Ending, ἀναγκαίαν παρέχεται ὡς καὶ συμφέρει ὁμοίως ὡς εἶπον. THUCYDIDES, iv. 86.
b. Beginning, ἄνδρες γὰρ ἐπειδὰν ᾧ ἀξιοῦσι, κ. τ. λ. Ending, καὶ τὸ λεγόμενόν που ἥδιστον εἶναι.
1. a. Beginning, Quid quæris? nihil sinceri.
Translate the following passages accurately into English :
Ending, an in meo nomine tabulas novas fecerit.
d. Beginning, Ο mirificum Dolabellam meum!..... Ending, ne periculosa nostris tyrannoctonis esset.
CICERO, Ep. ad Att., xiv. 21. b. Beginning, Tertio nonas vesperi a Balbo redditæ mihi litteræ, . . Ending, Lacedæmonem longinquam Lanuvium existimari. Ibid., XV. 9.
c. Beginning, Itane? Nonis Juliis ? Dii hercule istis ! . . . . . Ending, Nunc enim insulæ tantum.
e. Beginning, De dote, tanto magis perpurga. Ending, Ad antiquos igitur: ἀνεμέσητον γάρ.
Ibid., vii. 66.
f. Beginning, Sed tamen, ne nihil de re, nomen illud,... Ending, Ne talis vir ἀλογηθῆ. Sed μελήσει.
b. Beginning, Verres in Xenonem judicium dabat...... Ending, quum judicata sit, ad se ut adducant.
Ibid., xvi. 1.
Ibid., xiv. 15.
Ibid., xii. 12.
Ibid., xii. 3.
2. a. Beginning, Pergam atque insequar longius..
Ending, id quæstu ac tempore admonitus reprehendisti.
Ibid., ii. 3-22.
c. Beginning, Hic nolite expectare dum ego.
Ending, ibidem convivis spectantibus emblemata evellenda curavit. CICERO, in C. Verrem, ii. 4-22. d. Beginning, Tot in Sicilia civitates sunt quibus..... Ending, præfuisse ut hac utilitate necessario sit carendum? Ibid., ii. 5-22.
e. Beginning, Nox illa tota in exinaniunda navi consumitur....... Ending, ob hunc archipiratam pecuniam accepisse.
Ibid., ii. 5-25. 3. a. Beginning, Denique multa vides, quibus et color et sapor una .... Ending, Sed quia non volgo paria omnibus omnia constent. LUCRETIUS, ii. 680.
b. Beginning, Ocius ergo animus quam res se perciet ulla, . Ending, Sensiferos motus, quidam quod manticulantur.
3. Beginning, Populus severior vindex fraudis erat; Ending, ni propere dimittitis plebis concilium?
Translate the following passages into English: 1. Beginning, La. Hac proxuma nocte in marid elavi:. Ending, Gr. Accededum huc: Venus hæc volo arroget te. PLAUTUS, Rudens, act v. sc. ii. 20-45. 2. Beginning, O colonia, quæ cupis ponte ludere longo,. Ending, Ferream ut soleam tenaci in voragine mula.
CATULLUS, Carm. xvii.
Ibid., iii. 184.
4. Beginning, Præcipuus tamen est horum, qui sæpius exsul, Ending, An saga vendenti nubat caupone relicto.
LIVY, lib. xxv. c. 3.
JUVENAL, Sat. vi. 557-591.
Translate the following passage into Greek Tragic Iambics :-
Thy trusting lord didst thou, his servant, slay;
Kinsman, thou slew'st thy kinsman; friend, thy friend :
He would not let his savage chiefs alight,
For well he knew, what you, his chiefs, did not-
O arts, above the vulgar tyrant's reach!
O policy too subtle far for sense
Of heady, masterful, injurious men!
MATTHEW ARNOLD, Merope.
Translate the following passage into Greek Prose:
As to the affair wherein ye say ye last suffered injury, in that we unlawfully came upon your city in a time of peace and sacred solemnity, we do not reckon ourselves, even in that affair, so much to blame as you: for had we, indeed, of ourselves undertaken hostilities against your city, and as enemies devastated your territory, we had acted unjustly; but if some of the principal persons among you, both for wealth and birth, wishing to disengage you from a foreign alliance, and establish you in the institutions common to all Boeotia, invited us thither of their own accord, wherein have we injured you? for the leaders are more in fault than the followers. But, according to my judgment, neither they nor we did wrong. Being citizens, as well as you, and holding a greater stake in the country, they opened their gates, and introduced us to their city as friends, not enemies; being desirous that the lower ranks among you should no longer have the upper hand, but that the better sort of people should hold the dignities; intending also to be moderators of your counsels, and meaning not to deprive the state of your persons, but to reconcile you to your kindred; making you enemies to no party, but contriving that you should be at peace and amity with all. Now, as a proof that we had no hostile views, we offered injury to no one, but proclaimed that whoever was willing to have a constitution moulded after the common form of all the Boeotians should join us. You then came in readily, and, entering into a treaty with us, were at first quiet: but afterwards, perceiving us to be few in number, ye did not make us the like return to what ye received; namely, to proceed to no violence in deed, and by words only persuade us to depart thence; but ye attacked us contrary to the treaty-yet ye say that it is we who have been the injurers, and ye plead that ye ought not to suffer the penalty of the law. But that will never happen-if at least these give the right decision-but for all your misdeeds ye shall receive condign punishment.-From Translation of Thucydides.
Translate the following passage into Latin Prose :
Truth is always consistent with itself, and needs nothing to help it out; it is always near at hand, and sits upon our lips, and is ready to drop out before we are aware; whereas a lie is troublesome, and sets a man's invention upon the rack, and one trick needs a great many more to make it good. It is like building upon a false foundation, which continually stands in need of props to shore it up, and proves at last more chargeable than to have raised a substantial building at first upon a true and solid foundation for sincerity is firm and substantial, and there is nothing hollow or unsound in it, and because it is plain and open, fears no discovery; of which the crafty man is always in danger; and when he thinks he walks in the dark, all his pretences are so transparent, that he that runs may read them. He is the last man that finds himself to be found out; and whilst he takes it for granted that he makes fools of others, he renders himself ridiculous. Add to all this, that sincerity is the most compendious wisdom, and an excellent instrument for the speedy despatch of business; it creates confidence in those we have to deal with, saves the labour of many inquiries, and brings things to an issue in few words; it is like travelling in a plain, beaten, road, which commonly brings a man sooner to his journey's end than bye-ways, in which men often lose themselves. In a word, whatsoever convenience may be thought to be in falsehood and dissimulation, it is soon over; but the inconvenience of it is perpetual, because it brings a man under an everlasting jealousy and suspicion, so that he is not believed when he speaks truth, nor trusted perhaps when he means honestly. When a man has once forfeited the reputation of his integrity, he is set fast, and nothing will then serve his turn, neither truth nor falsehood. And I have often thought that God hath, in his great wisdom, hid from men of false and dishonest minds the wonderful advantages of truth and integrity to the prosperity even of our worldly affairs. These men are so blinded by their covetousness and ambition, that they cannot look beyond a present advantage, nor forbear to seize upon it, though by ways never so indirect; they cannot see so far as to the remote consequences of a steady integrity, and the vast benefit and advantages which it will bring a man at last. Were but this sort of men wise and clear-sighted enough to discern this, they would be honest out of very knavery, not out of any love to honesty and virtue, but with a crafty design to promote and advance more effectually their own interests; and therefore the justice of the divine providence hath hid this truest point of wisdom from their eyes, that bad men might not be upon equal terms with the just and upright, and serve their own wicked designs by honest and lawful means.-TILLOTSON.
Translate the following passage into Latin Hexameter Verse:
On what foundation stands the warrior's pride?