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9. How does Archbishop Whately distinguish between questions of fact and questions of arrangement? He mentions an erroneous opinion connected with the neglect to observe this distinction, and points out some sources of this error?

io. How have the categories been applied in the classification of Propositions? Archbishop Whately points out an analogy between modal propositions and one species of hypotheticals? In his treatment of these latter, he differs in several respects from Murray ?

11. Strictly speaking, how many syllogistic modes only are admissible, and why?

In general, the conclusion determines the premises only in the first figure?

This proposition admits one exception?

12. Reduce Bramantip and Camenes to the first figure by reduction ad impossibile, and prove the validity of the process.



Translate the following passages accurately into English

1. Beginning, Καίτοι τῷ εαυτῶν ἑκάστους, εἰ σωφρονοῦμεν, κ. τ. λ. Ending, ὥσπερ περὶ τοῦ πολεμεῖν;

THUCYDIDES, iv. 61, 62. 2. Beginning, καταστήσας δὲ τὰς ἀρχὰς καὶ ἄρχοντας ἐπιστήσας, κ.τ.λ. Ending, κατακόπτει τοσοῦτο ὅσου ἂν ἑκάστοτε δέηται. HERODOTUS, iii. 89-96.

3. Beginning, Κατὰ τουτὶ τὸ ψήφισμα ὦ ἄνδρες ̓Αθηναῖοι, κ. τ. λ. Ending, επειδη δ ̓ ὁμολογοῦσιν, ἀπάγειν δήπου προσῆκεν. DEMOSTHENES, De Fals. Leg., 430-431.

4. Beginning, πρός Διὸς, ἦν δ ̓ ἐγώ, τὸ δὲ δὴ μιμεῖσθαι, κ. τ. λ. Ending, τῶν φαύλων ἂν τι εἴη ἐν ἡμῖν. ἀνάγκη.


PLATO, De Rep., x. 5.

Translate the following passages into English

1. Beginning, τοῖσι δὲ τεῦχε κυκειῶ ἐϋπλόκαμος Εκαμήδη, κ. τ. λ. Ending, πινέμεναι δ ̓ ἐκέλευσεν, ἐπεί ῥ' ώπλισσε κυκειῶ.

HOMER, Iliad, lib. xi. 624-641.

κ. Beginning, γνώσει, τέχνης σημεῖα τῆς ἐμῆς κλύων, κ. τ. λ. Ending, ἐμοὶ γὰρ οὗτος ἡγεμὼν, ἄλλοις δ' ἐγώ.

SOPHOCLES, Antigone, 998-1014.

3. Beginning, πᾶς γὰρ ἀστράπτει χαλινὸς, κ.τ.λ. Ending, σεμνά τε παῖς Παλλὰς Αθάνα.

SOPHOCLES, Ed. Col., 1067-1090.

4. Beginning, εὐθὺς δὲ πώλοις δεινὸς ἐμπίπτει φόβος, κ. τ. λ. Ending, μή μ' ἐξαλείψητ ̓. ᾧ πατρὸς τάλαιν ̓ ἀρά. EURIPIDES, Hippolytus, 1218-1241.

5. Beginning, ἐγὼ δὲ πλόκαμον ἀναδέτοις, κ. τ. λ. Ending, μήτε πατρῷον ἵκοιτ ̓ ἐς οἶκον.

EURIPIDES, Hecuba, 923–952.


Translate the following passages into English:--

1. Beginning, Cl. Sed eccum egreditur senati columen, præsidium popli,.. Ending, Ibo intro, ut subducam navim rursum in pulvinarium. PLAUTUS, Casina, act III. sc. ii. 6–27.

2. Beginning, G. O fortuna, O fors fortuna, quantis commoditatibus,.... Ending, Quamobrem retineat me: ait esse vetitum intro ad heram accedere.

TERENCE, Phormio, act v. sc. vi. 1–24. 3. Beginning, Non satis est dixisse: "Ego mira poëmata pango;.... Ending, Nunquam te fallant animi sub vulpe latentes. HORACE, Epist., lib. II. ep. iii. 416-437. 4. Beginning, Atque hæc jam primo depulsus ab ubere matris...... Ending, Verbera lenta pati, et duris parere lupatis.

VIRGIL, Georg., lib. iii. 187-208

5. Beginning, Atticus eximie si coenat, lautus habetur;..... Ending, Fictile: sic veniunt ad miscellanea ludî.


Translate the following passages into English Prose :


JUVENAL, Sat. xi. 1-20. 6. Beginning, Mane piger stertis: 'Surge!' inquit Avaritia: ‘eja....... Ending, Vive memor leti, fugit hora: hoc, quod loquor, inde est.' PERSIUS, Sat. v. 132-153.


1. Beginning, M. Asinio, M'. Acilio consulibus,.

Ending, Calabriam servorum agminibus pacem Italiæ turbaret. TACITUS, Annal., xii. 64, 65.

3. Beginning, Hæc precatus, superante multitudine,. . . . Ending, direptione urbis opulentissimæ est consumptus.

2. Beginning, Hæc sunt, quæ conturbant homines... Ending, quod omnium sceleratissimum fuerit, exceperit! CICERO, De Offic., lib. iii. c. 20, 21.

LIVY, lib. v. c. 21.


Translate the following passage into Greek Prose :


I mean not, however, to recommend you to brook, as if you felt them not, the wrongs they inflict on our allies, or to connive at their insidious encroachments; but I do advise that we should not yet take up arms, but send and expostulate, holding forth the language neither of decided hostility, nor of pusillanimous acquiescence; and, in the meanwhile, that all due preparations be made on our part, by attaching to our interest allies, both Greeks and Barbarians, any, I say, from whatever quarter, from which we may derive aid, whether of shipping or money; taking care, moreover, to provide what we can from our own resources. And if, indeed, they should hearken to our expostulations, that will be the best issue the business can have: but if not, when two, or even three years have elapsed, then, if it should be thought expedient, we may advance against them thoroughly armed for the contest: and perhaps when they see our preparations, and find our words and actions correspondent to each other, they may rather choose to give way, while they preserve their territory undevastated, and may yet consult about valuable property still in being and uninjured. For think not that we hold their territory otherwise than as a pledge, which it is our policy to spare as long as possible, and not, by throwing them into despair, thus render them the harder to subdue. For if, unprepared as we now are, we should be impelled, by the accusations of the allies, to proceed to the devastation of their territory,mark if we shall not occasion to Pelopponesus so much the more of disgrace and difficulty. For the accusations of states, as of individuals, it is possible to clear away; but a general war, taken up on private grounds, and of which none can tell the issue, it is no easy matter honourably to lay aside. And let it not seem to any of you pusillanimous for so many states not to advance speedily upon one. For they, too, have allies, not inferior in number to our own, and that pay them tribute; and war is a business, not so much of arms as of expense, by which alone arms are made availing, and especially in the contest of an inland with a maritime power. Let us, then, first provide ourselves with treasure, nor be prematurely hurried into action by the harangues of our allies. But let those who are to have the greatest share of the praise or blame resulting from the events, whichsoever way they turn out; let us, I say, leisurely and quietly employ some forecast concerning them.-From Translation of Thucydides.


Translate the following passage into Greek Trimeter Iambics :

Ere yet we left the hollow ship but seldom did my husband
Look on me, and he spake no cheery word.
Opposite me he sate, and seemed the while
Gloomily meditating something evil;

But scarcely had the beaks of the first ships,
Within the curving shore of the Eurotas
Steered safely, greeted land, when thus spake he-
Seemed it that with his voice the inspiring god
Spake:"Here, my warriors, each in his due order,

Move, disembarking: I will muster them,
Rank after rank, drawn up on the sea strand.
But go thou on! Go up along the bank
Of the holy river, where Eurotas flows
Thro' his fertile valley. Turn thy swift steeds up
Over the emerald depths of the moist meadow,
Till thou hast reached the high plain and the buildings
Of Lacedæmon, late a rich wide field
Hemmed in by solitary hills severe.
Enter the palace there high turreted ;
Gather the maids, whom I left there at parting,
Together; and the sage old stewardess,
Let her show thee the rich collected treasures,
Thy father's gathering, and those, too, that I,
In peace and war ever increasing them,
Have piled together. All in order due
Wilt thou find standing-for it is the right
Undoubted of the prince, that to his home returning
He find all things in their place as he hath left them:
For of himself the slave hath power to alter nothing.”


Translate the following passage into Latin Prose :-

The school to which Cicero most attached himself was the school of the New Academy, of which Arcesilas was the reputed founder. But it was precisely for the reason that this school was the most liberal and least prejudiced of all. Its distinguishing feature was an enlightened scepticism. It did not dogmatize so much as doubt. Where other sects peremptorily determined what was True and what was False, the New Academy was modestly content with Probability. Cicero was too sagacious and too liberal not to see the weak points of other systems. He laughed at the absurd paradoxes of the Stoics, and his moral sense revolted at the selfish and God-denying doctrines of the Epicureans. But he did not reject all because he could not approve of all, for he agreed on many points with both. Knowing the character of his mind, it would have been easy to predict, even without knowing the fact, that he would incline to the school of the New Academy. It was a doctrine congenial to the spirit of an irresolute man, to hold that doubt is the proper state in which to keep the mind suspended, when dealing with questions of speculative truth. Moreover, the habit of mind of an advocate is indisposed to dogmatic assertion. He is constantly employed in considering what can be said by an opponent, and he is more concerned that the answer he is prepared to make shall be plausible than that it shall be true. But no man can accustom himself to weigh objections without learning to doubt whether his own view is infallibly right. The conflict of argument has taught him that on almost every question much may be said on both sides, and the result is, or ought to be, a spirit of fairness and candour, which is equally opposed to bigotry in religion, and dogmatism in philosophy. For the same reason, I believe, it was, and not from a servile imitation of Plato, that Cicero cast most of his philosophical treatises

into the form of dialogues, by which he was enabled to bring out the strong and weak points of opposing systems, without committing himself to any decisive and peremptory opinion. But, although on speculative questions, such as the Nature of Things, the Supreme Good, and similar subjects, he was more the expounder of the opinions of others than the asserter of his own, he was a firm believer in the great cardinal truths of a Providence and a Future State. And he was also clear and decided in his views of moral obligation. In his lofty and unhesitating choice of Right in preference to Expediency, as the rule of conduct, he is a safer guide than Paley; and his work, "De Officiis," is the best practical treatise on the Whole Duty of Man which Pagan antiquity affords. The Ethics of Aristotle may be compared to the dissection of an anatomist, but Cicero has given life to the figure of Virtue, and clothed it in warm flesh and blood.-FORSYTH, Life of Cicero, c. 25.


Translate the following passage into Latin Hexameters or Elegiacs :


Behold! Augusta's glitt'ring spires increase,


And temples rise, the beauteous works of peace.
see, I see, where two fair cities bend
Their ample bow, a new Whitehall ascend!
There mighty nations shall inquire their doom,
The world's great oracle in times to come;
There kings shall sue, and suppliant states be seen
Once more to bend before a British Queen.

Thy trees, fair Windsor! now shall leave their woods,
And half thy forests rush into thy floods,
Bear Britain's thunder, and her cross display,
To the bright regions of the rising day:
Tempt icy seas, where scarce the waters roll
Where clearer flames glow round the frozen Pole;
Or under southern skies exalt their sails,
Led by new stars, and borne by spicy gales!
For me the balm shall bleed, and amber flow,
The coral redden, and the ruby glow.
The pearly shell its lucid globe infold,
And Phoebus warm the rip'ning ore to gold.
The time shall come, when free as seas or wind
Unbounded Thames shall flow for all mankind,
Whole nations enter with each swelling tide,
And seas but join the regions they divide;
Earth's distant ends our glory shall behold,
And the new world launch forth to seek the old.




1. How did the patriotism of an ancient Greek differ from that of a modern Englishman?

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