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2. Describe the political constitution of Sparta; in particular show what was the real nature of the Ephoralty.
3. Set out distinctly, in their order, the several principal changes by which the Athenian constitution passed from what it was in the time of Solon to what it was in the time of Demosthenes.
4. What, according to Mr. Grote, was the true meaning of the institution of Ostracism?
5. What was the difference between cleruchies and ordinary colonies? 6. State what you know of Andocides, Antiphon, Hyperides, Isæus, and Isocrates.
7. Relate the history of Dion of Syracuse.
8. What were the Licinian Rogations?
9. What is the exact meaning of “ the Latin name” in Roman history? 10. Describe the Roman order of battle.
11. Give an account of the rise and progress of Slave-labour in the Roman republic, and of the efforts made to prevent its increase.
12. State the circumstances of the celebrated march of C. Claudius Nero in the second Punic War.
13. Write a short political biography of M. Livius Drusus.
14. What were the most important measures by which Sylla moulded anew the constitution of Rome?
15. Where were the following places, and with what historical events are their names associated :-Alesia, Asculum, Carrhæ, Corfinium, Gaugamela, Gergovia, Ilerda, Raudii Campi, Saltus Teutoburgiensis, Thyrea?
1. The Roman Poetry was founded on and expressed three constituent elements?
2. Mr. Sellar remarks that the Romans as a race were deficient in social vivacity and in speculative capacity, and points out how these defects showed themselves in various branches of their literature as compared with the Greek.
3. Point out the departments of literature in which the Romans have exhibited peculiar excellence, and on which they have left their own stamp; and account for the result in these cases.
4. Illustrate and account for the personal character of Roman poetry as compared with the impersonality so strongly marked in the productions of Greek genius.
5. Indicate and explain the difference in the feeling for nature and natural scenery visible in Greek and Roman poetry.
6. Point out and account for some of the leading differences as to forms of sentiment which appear in a comparison of ancient classical literature with that of modern times.
7. Certain characteristics of the satiric poetry of the Romans strongly reflected its origin?
"Pater nobis decessit a. d. vII. Kal. Decembr."
CIC. ad Att. 1. 6. 2. Write a note on this passage, and discuss the probability of the various reading proposed.
9. Discuss the question as to the intended defence of Catiline by Cicero, alluded to in his letters to Atticus.
10. Write an estimate of the genius and character of Cicero in the several aspects in which he may be regarded.
11. Write a brief note on the origin and nature of Idyllic poetry. πάντα δ' ἔναλλα γένοιτο, καὶ ἁ πίτυς ὄχνας ἐνείκαι. THEOCR. i. 134. Translate, and comment on the version of this passage by Virgil. 13. καὶ φεύγει φιλέοντα, καὶ οὐ φιλέοντα διώκει· καὶ τὸν ἀπὸ γραμμᾶς κινεῖ λίθον.
THEOCR. Vi. 17.
μοῦνος ὅδε προτέρων τε καὶ ὧν ἔτι θερμὰ κονία
THEOCR. Xvii. 121.
15. Give a brief account of some of the principal changes in the Greek language in passing from the Attic to the later Greek.
16. Write a note as to the different modes of accentuation in Greek, and the relation thereto of the Latin mode of accentuation.
17. State and account for the difference in the use of prepositions in different ages of the Greek language.
18. Write a note on the cases of omission of the definite article before nouns in Greek, and give examples.
19. How are the stem-forms in Greek determined?
20. When a Greek verb fluctuates between the transitive and intransitive meaning, state the rules which determine the appropriation of the several tenses to each kind of meaning.
21. Enumerate the chief suffixes employed in the formation of adjectives, and state the meaning expressed by each.
22. Comparative and superlative forms are often used in Greek to express adverbs-with what distinction?
23. State the rules for the composition of verbs in Greek.
24. Give some account of the variations observable in Greek Prosody. 25. Explain the origin and the use of synonyms in languages generally.
26. Archbishop Trench gives the words idiúrns and avтápкnç as examples of words whose meanings give us lessons in Greek life and ideas? 27. State the meanings of the following terms in Greek legal phraseology: ἐξούλης δίκη— ἑξωμοσία-δίκαι ἀπὸ συμβολων-εκφυλλοφορία παράστασις—διαψήφισις.
28. Explain the meaning of the following terms as used in Greek philosophical phraseology: τέλος—ἐνέργεια—δύναμις.
29. Discuss the question as to the cultivation of Latin literature by the Greeks, and account for the state of facts in this matter.
30. Write a statement on the advantages of the Dialogue as a vehicle for philosophical discussion, with reference especially to Plato.
1. Mr. Walker states two popular objections to the study of Logic; give his answers to these objections in the form of syllogisms.
2. Give Dr. Whately's answers to objections against the use of Syllogism. Reduce these to five different heads.
3. How does Dr. Whately, by an analysis of the process of Reasoning, arrive at the dictum de omni and de nullo?
4. What is the logical import of the word "Predicable"? and how is the doctrine of the Predicables connected with the theory of Reasoning? (a). What is the "essential difference" with respect to the "Genus"? and give an example.
5. Mr. Walker observes that "We need especially to guard against two species of Sophisms." Give his definitions of these Sophisms, and Dr. Whately's analysis of them.
6. What do you understand by proving the Validity of Reduction? (a). As far as the inference of Truth and Falsehood is concerned, what propositions in reductio ad impossibile might be contraries or subcontraries?
(b.) What are the instruments of Ostensive Reduction, and how are they to be applied in the second and third figures?
7. State the special rules of Hypothetical Syllogisms. How are they reducible to Categorical Syllogisms? and give an example.
8. The primary classes of Fallacies have been usually confoundedfrom what source? Aldrich and Murray have both erred in this matter?
EXAMINATION FOR PREMIUMS IN IRISH.
Translate the following passages literally into English :
Feuc, cuirmíd srianta a mbéaluib na neaċ ċum iad d'úṁluzad Búiñ; & do Beirmíd air a gcorp uile iompog fá gcuairt.
Feuc mar an gcéadna na longa, bíod [go bfuilid] ró ṁór, 1  ngluaisdear [iad] ré gaočuib, fós iompóiztear iad fá gcuairt sé sdiuir ró big, gid b'é ar bit árd a dtograñ fear na sdiuire.
As áṁluid sin as ball beag an teanguid, & do zní mórdáil mór. Feuc, créad é méad an áðbar lasas ré teine big !
Agus [as] teine an teanguid, dóṁan na héagcóra: as mar sin atá an teanguid air ra suíżead a measg ar mbaill, go salċañ an corp uile, agus go gcuireañ air lasad sdaid ar mbeata [6 ġeintear in]; & is 6 ifrioñ lastar í.
'Oin ceañpuigtear, agus do riñead ceañsa ris an nádúir daoña, ac uile nádúir ainṁiñtead nallta, & éunlaite, & na néiteañ snáṁas [an talaṁ], & an fairrge:
As buill cáideaċa iad so añ bur bfeusduifið gráda, an tan bíd air feusda maille rib, d'a mbeażużad féin gan faitċeas air bit: neoill gan uisge, d'a mbreit fá gcuairt ris na gaotuib : craiñ do meat, ain naċ bfuil torad, do éag fá đồ, air na mbuain as a bfréaṁać;
Ganbioña fairge, sgeiteas a náire féin aṁuil cubas; reulta seaċráin, fá cóṁar a bfuil an dorċadas fíordorċa d'a tairge go siorruide.
Translate the following passage from English into Irish :
Acts, iv. 8-12.
1. Explain fully the construction in such combinations as darab, lenab, ciò bé, nior.
2. Conjugate affirmatively, negatively, and interrogatively, the irregular verb té.
3. Explain the different senses in which the verbs gab, beir, and cuin are used, pointing out the radical idea in each.
4. Distinguish between fág and faż, tóg and tog, 6g and of.
5. Difference of meaning between fuapar an caora marb, and fuapas an caora marb?
6. Mention some of the proofs on which the right of the Irish to be ranked among the Indo-European languages is founded.
7. What initial changes take place in loan words from Latin beginning with the letter p? Give instances.
8. Write the Irish words which seem to be modifications of the following Latin words :-mensa, vates, vita, pluma, visus, vocalis.
9. When Latin words are adopted in Irish, what letters usually take the place of the b, v, and t of the Latin forms?
10. Derive the words freagra, furtaċd, congnaṁ.
11. Write the Latin, Greek, and Sanscrit forms corresponding to the Irish word cnobe, and give the older Irish form which seems nearest akin to the Sanscrit, and points to what is probably the idea intended to be expressed by the original root.
12. Distinguish between cpioċ and crait.
13. What is the probable explanation of what is called eclipsis in Irish grammar?
14. Write phrases in Irish exemplifying the difference of meaning between rior, rior, anios: suas, fuas, anuas, and explain the formation of the forms anior and anuas.
15. Why is a thorough knowledge of the substantive verb and the compound pronouns of such importance to the student of the Modern Irish?
16. Give the modern Irish names of Christmas day, Lent, Easter day, Ascension Thursday, and Whit-Sunday; explaining the formation in each case.
17. Account for such forms as an t-uan, an t-aċair, in the modern language.
18. Distinguish between tuitim and leagad; tóg suas and arduiz. 19. What is the general rule as to the position of the adjective in respect to the noun to which it belongs, and what are the principal exceptions?
20. Give examples of the principal idiomatic meanings of the preposition le, leis.
EXAMINATION FOR PRIZES IN POLITICAL ECONOMY.
1. Explain what is meant by the Prosperity of a Nation, and how its existence may be ascertained.
2. The state of the foreign trade of a country is by some regarded as a safe criterion of its economical condition; give your opinion of the value of such a test, and the grounds upon which that opinion is based.
3. a. How far is a population comparatively numerous conducive to the material well-being of a nation?
b. Peculiar circumstances rendered an increase of population a matter of paramount importance to most of the civilized communities of ancient Europe?
4. It appears from certain trustworthy returns that between the years 1844 and 1860 the rate of wages in Ireland rose from an average of 4s. 6d. to an average of 78. 1d. per week, or about 57 per cent. Are we entitled to infer from this fact that a corresponding improvement took place in the material condition of the labouring classes ?-if not, explain why.
5. The Irish people are said to be habitually indolent and improvident
a. So far as this statement is true, the fact can be accounted for on philosophical principles ?
b. How far do you consider the theory of "race" admissible in accounting for national peculiarities?
6. Has absenteeism any, and, if so, what effect on the material condition of the native country of the absentee?
7. In accounting for the differences existing between the rates of remuneration in different employments, Adam Smith mentions agreeableness among the circumstances which cause an occupation to be pecuniarily underpaid. Under the term agreeableness he includes the enjoyment of social position. From this it has been argued that Civil Servants, so far as their pecuniary remuneration is concerned, must necessarily be underpaid, since an appointment in the Civil Service confers