« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
a certain amount of social position. If you think this a correct inference from Smith's principle, reconcile your opinion with the fact that the larger the salary of a public official, the higher, cæteris paribus, his social position; so that, if the emoluments of Civil Servants were universally increased, their social position would be as universally raised. If you do not think the inference correct, say whether Smith's principle is unsound, or whether any, and, if so, what circumstance prevents its applying to the present case.
8. Professor Kingsley ("Associative Principles applied to Agriculture," p. 39) says, on the authority of Liebig: "The population of any country returns to the soil, in the form of sewage, fit for immediate absorption by the roots of plants, the whole raw material of its last year's food, i. e. aÏl the home-grown and all the imported food. . . . . Suppose a population of 10,000, who are fed for one year by home-grown food for 8000, and imported food for 2000, they will return to the soil, as raw material for next year's crop, food for 10,000. By the end of the year they will have increased, say, 5 per cent. Then next year there will be 10,500 people to feed on home-grown food for 10,000+ that year's imports, and which therefore need be this year only enough to feed 500; and the next year after the population, though increasing at the same rate, would more than support itself, and become an exporter of food."
Admitting the truth of the assertion contained in the first paragraph of the above extract, is the conclusion, that after the second year the population would more than support itself, sound? If you think not, point out where the error lies.
1. On what circumstances, both proximately and remotely, does the rate of wages depend?
2. a. In what sense is it true that value is regulated by demand and supply; and in what sense is it true that value is regulated by cost of production?
b. Explain the manner in which a conformity between the market value and the cost value of an article is brought about.
3. Supposing an article made in Ireland to be purchaseable there as cheaply, and of as good quality, as a similar article of foreign manufacture; does it matter whether Irish consumers choose the home or the foreign commodity ?
4. Suppose the principle of " Co-operation" to be generally adopted by the labouring classes, how would wages, and how would profits be affected?
5. a. Is Political Economy an art, or a science?
b. Explain, and if you think proper illustrate by an example, the method you would adopt in solving an economic problem.
6. What are the leading objections that have been urged against the study of Political Economy, and how are they answered?
7. Gold in New York is now (June, 1864) 1941. Explain the meaning of this statement, and the causes of the phenomenon which it discloses. How is the exchange with Europe affected thereby?
8. How have Adam Smith and Dr. Longfield, respectively, accounted for the fall of profits which is observed generally to take place in the progress of society? State how far you consider either theory to account for the phenomenon; and give whatever explanation of it seems to you most satisfactory.
EXAMINATION FOR PREMIUMS IN CIVIL LAW.
1. Mr. Phillimore says that there is scarcely an important question in which our municipal law may not be illustrated by the principles of the Digest; state the particular illustrations which he gives in proof of this.
2. Who is described by him as the founder of Historical Jurisprudence? 3. State the great distinction between the Historical school of commentators on the Roman Law and the commentators who preceded them, called the Glossarists.
4. Mr. Phillimore, after mentioning several of the great jurists of France, says that in the 16th century England had but one name to set against them, yet that name is of intellectual eminence sufficient to set the balance in her favour; state the name.
5. Give the definition of Jurisprudence which you find in the Institutes. 6. Give Mr. Heron's definition of Jurisprudence.
7. Mr. Heron, after several quotations from the ancient jurists, from Hooker, and from others, defining or describing Law, says that in Jurisprudence the meaning of the word is limited; give his definition of it, thus limited.
8. What is the effect of the science of Jurisprudence, according to Heron?
9. Mr. Heron says there are three phases in the development of Law; state the three.
10. State his illustration of the first of the three.
II. State the second phase, with his illustrations.
12. State a judicial maxim which expresses the ruling principle of the second phase.
13. State the third phase, and its ruling principle.
14. Up to the present time, four great divisions of Law have been enumerated by Jurists.
15. Define Procedure.
16. What is an Action?
17. State, from Mr. Heron's book, the three functions of government. 18. Give his definition of Police.
19. What is the great advantage possessed by modern society over every previous stage of man's social progress?
20. Give Mr. Heron's definition of a tax.
21. Jurisprudence is divided into four parts; state the four.
24. Give Mr. Heron's definition of Public Liberty.
25. Define sui heredes.
26. Was the wife classed with the sui heredes?
27. State the distinction between constitutive and demonstrative tes timony.
28. Among what are called the internal solemnities of wills, there was one common to all wills?
29. In the will of a Roman parent leaving sui heredes, there was one indispensable incident without which the will was void?
30. Can a parent substitute an heir for a disinherited child?
31. When a parent substitutes an heir for an impubes, he may be giving such heir more than he has given by his will to such impubes; how can this arise?
32. In the Roman Law, where the posthumous children of a Roman testator are spoken of, what is the meaning of the phrase?
33. A fixed principle of Roman Law was, that a slave has no rights. In their testamentary law this principle seems to be departed from; say how.
34. The word testamentifactio had a twofold meaning; define and describe it so as to exhibit this.
35. Half his property is given by a Roman testator to Decius, who is the only heir named in the testament; what becomes of the residue?
36. Inconvenience was found in the number of witnesses to a Roman will where the canon law prevailed, this was got rid of; say in what manner?
37. Define Usufruct, and give the explanation of the definition which you find in the Institutes.
38. The Use and the Usufruct are distinguished in the Roman system; say how?
39. State the distinction between Tutor and Curator.
40. State the distinction between a fidei-commissum and a fidei-commissaria hereditas.
41. Explain what is called the Uncial division in a Roman testament.
42. The following words occur in a Roman will,-Octavius et Nonius heredes sunto; si non erunt, Decius esto. What are the rights of Octavius and Nonius? Suppose either to decline the inheritance, what is the effect? State the rights of the parties in the several cases that may be supposed to occur; state the rights of the original heredes, and of Decius, the substituted heres.
43. State the circumstances in which the law of codicils arose.
44. State the great distinction between the Codicil and the Testament. 45. What was the regula Catoniana?
46. Did a will made by a prisoner in the hands of the enemy become valid if he afterwards returned to his country?
47. Suppose such prisoner to have made a will before his captivity; was it valid?
48: Define heres necessarius.
49. Explain the meaning in the Roman Law of the phrases dies cedit and dies venit.
50. Could a peregrinus be a witness of a Roman testament?
51. Is a legacy invalid if a false reason (falsa causa) is assigned in the testament for giving it?
52. What is the meaning of the words legatum nominis ?
53. The word fidei-commissum is not coextensive with the English word Trust, by which it is often translated; exhibit this by defining accurately fidei-commissum, and state how they differ.
54. Explain the phrase de calumnia juraverit, and the passage in the second book of the Institutes in which it occurs.
55. Within the two first centuries of the Christian era new corporate bodies, with laws of their own, had grown up in the Empire; what were they?
56. The barbaric laws, though essentially Teutonic, were yet modified by Christian notions. Among other causes, Dean Milman specifies one particularly calculated to have this effect?
57. Christianity had its peculiar Jurisprudence; give Dean Milman's account of this?
58. State the proper character of the sanctions of the Christian Jurisprudence.
59. The Imperial and Christian legislation did not preserve their respective boundaries; state the causes of this.
60. In Christendom, in the first centuries, there were three systems of Jurisprudence; state them.
61. Dean Milman gives from the Code of Justinian proofs of the interference of the civil power with the Church; state those proofs, or some of them.
62. The Bishop was a civil officer for certain purposes; how was this? 63. How were the judges of the superior courts appointed before the time of William III.?
64. Trial by jury is said to have been secured by the words of the Great Charter; state the words which are understood to have secured it.
65. In "trial by jury," state what principle prevailed at all times, amid every change which it underwent from the earliest time to our own.
66. In the original trial by jury, verdicts seem to have been arrived at by a different mode of ascertaining the truth from that which now prevails?
67. What were the powers of the King in the original Roman Monarchy ?
68. In changing the Republic to a Monarchy, the title of princeps senatus was of singular use to the Emperor; how was this?
69. What were the privileges of the princeps senatus ?
70. Tacitus is quoted by Mr. Merivale in proof of the importance of the Republican title of princeps; state what Tacitus says.
71. An inference of the importance of the name princeps is derived from the title, in the classical writers, of what in modern language are called the Imperial Constitutions?
72. After 731, Augustus declined to accept the Consulship; he continued, however, to preserve its chief advantages?
73. State the chief means by which the Emperor's power was supported in the effort to convert the Republic into a Monarchy without violating the ancient Republican forms.
74. It was the policy of the founder of the Empire to rest his authority on the presumed vote of the people; state a remarkable proof of this.
75. In the year 735 U. c., new powers were offered to Augustus, of which he declined some, and accepted some; state the most important that he accepted.
76. In 742 U. c. he was invested with another important power?
77. State the legislative and judicial power exercised by the Emperor.
78. What is Mr. Merivale's explanation of the phrase, “legibus solutus"?
79. Give Blackstone's definition of natural allegiance.
80. State Huberus's three axioms on the comitas gentium from Story. 81. State Boullenois' five principles on the comitas gentium.
82. What is the main question on which Grotius's Treatise De Jure Belli et Pacis depends?
83. Grotius quotes the phrase silent leges inter arma, and says this applies only to one class of laws; state what he says on this subject.
84. He quotes an old formula on this subject from Livy, exhibiting the thought of justice in connexion with war; state that formula.
85. He also quotes from Livy "Sunt et belli, sunt et pacis jura." In what connexion does he quote this?
86. Give Cieero's definition of war (Bellum).
87. State what Grotius says of Cicero's definition, and give his own. 88. Give Grotius' definition of Natural Law.