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Along the walls where speaking marbles show
That awful form, which, so the heavens decree,
Th' unblemished statesman seems to strike my sight;
If in the stage I seek to soothe my care,
I meet his soul which breathes in Cato there;
If pensive to the rural shades I rove,
His shape o'ertakes me in the lonely grove;
There taught us how to live; and-oh! too high
TICKELL'S Elegy on the Death of Addison.
GRECIAN AND ROMAN HISTORY.
1. Mure points out a remarkable interchange between Sparta and Athens with respect to literary culture. Describe its nature, and mention the considerations which assist in explaining it.
2. It has been said that no empire was ever more legitimate than that of Athens. State what may be urged in support of this assertion.
3. How have the Athenian people been defended against the charges of (a) fickleness, (b) religious intolerance, and (c) bad faith in money-dealings?
4. Show that three elements combined to determine the character and colouring of Roman poetry.
5. Write a short essay on the spirit and tendencies of the principal writers of the Augustan period, considered in relation to the situation and sentiments of their age.
6. To what causes, apart from national character, may the excellence of the Roman civil law be ascribed?
1. State and examine the chief argument which has been urged against the common origin of languages.
2. State the chief theories which have been held as to the origin of the radical elements of languages.
3. Define the true genealogical relation of the Greek and Latin languages to the Sanskrit, giving some arguments in support of your state
4. What explanation does Max Müller offer of the phenomena embodied in Grimm's law? and how does he argue that the changes cannot be ascribed to phonetic corruption?
5. In the Latin language there is a tendency to change an original s between two vowels into r. Give examples of this.
6. What is the corresponding tendency in the Greek? Give examples. 7. Explain the endings of the present tense indicative of the passive verb in Latin.
8. How does Bopp explain the termination of the Greek passive infinitive -o0a? and how far is his view supported by the corresponding Latin form?
9. What forms in the Greek verb correspond to the present conjunctive in Latin? Trace the resemblance in archaic forms which have been retained in the later Latin.
10. In some cases causative verbs in Sanskrit are formed by the insertion of l. Give instances of causatives similarly formed in Greek.
11. Compare with the Sanskrit the several comparative and superlative terminations in Greek and Latin.
12. Write a note on the formation of the Greek and Latin ordinals for the numbers from 1 to 10.
13. Specify Greek and Latin adverbs with terminations corresponding to the Sanskrit tas which form adverbs expressing origin or source.
14. Write notes on the origin and formation of the words, avráρ, onμερov, πóσos, autem, tandem, uter.
15. The Greek tenses fall into three classes, according to the mode of their derivation from the root of the verb ?
16. When verbs have both aorists in the same voice, what is observable as to these forms? Why have such verbs as koλáw, kałiɣw, no second aorist?
17. State the general rule as to the mode of the assumption of the augment by compound verbs, and the principle on which it is founded.
18. Give some examples of verbs which take the augment both before the preposition and the verb.
19. "The subject generally has the article, while the predicate generally is without it." Mention cases in which the article is omitted with the subject, and in which it is used with the predicate.
20. Comment on the use of the combination μǹ our in the passage, δυσάλγητος γὰρ ἂν εἴην, τοιάνδε μὴ οὐ κατοικτείρων ἕδραν, Soph.
Œ. R. 12. In what respect is such phraseology as où dúvapai μǹ ποιεῖν τοῦτο irregular ?
21. Define accurately the distinct uses of the Greek genitive, accusative, and dative, expressing relations of time.
22. Write a note on the use of the aorist for the present by the tragedians, and give examples of the usage.
23. What is the difference of meaning of the interrogative phrases, Tí παθών, τί μαθών? How do you account for the idiom ὅτι μαθών in such sentences as, Plato, Apol, τί ἄξιος εἰμι παθεῖν ἢ ἀποτῖσαι ὅτι μαθὼν ἐν τῷ βίῳ οὐχ ἡσυχίαν ἦγον? Explain the use of ἔχων in such phrases as ληρεῖς ἔχων, φλυαρεῖς ἔχων.
24. How do we find the usage of Latin writers to have varied as regards such phrases as incerta belli, where a neuter adjective in the singular or plural as a substantive is followed by a genitive?
25. Write a note on the use of postquam with the imperfect and pluperfect indicative.
26. And on the use of the second person of the Latin future indicative or of the present conjunctive for the imperative.
27. What is unusual in the syntax of the sentence, "Hos omnes eadem cupere, eadem odisse, eadem metuere in unum coegit"?
28. "Utile est ipsum adesse." "Utile est quod ipse adest." Are these modes of expression interchangeable?
Moderatorships in Experimental and Natural Science.
HUMPHREY LLOYD, D. D.
JOSEPH A. GALBRAITH, M. A., Professor of Natural Philosophy.
1. Find the place of the interior fringes, in the shadow of a narrow opaque obstacle.
2. In Young's Interference-experiment, a plate of glass is interposed in the path of one of the interfering pencils, and the fringes are displaced by an observed interval; calculate the refractive index of the plate, its thickness being known.
3. A polarized ray is incident perpendicularly on a grating; deduce the relation between the planes of polarization of the incident and diffracted rays.
4. A ray polarized in a given plane falls on the surface of a transparent medium; find the maximum value of the azimuth of the plane of polarization of the refracted ray.
5. Calculate the numerical value of the intensity of the light reflected perpendicularly by a medium whose refractive index = 1.5, the intensity of the incident light being unity.
6. Unpolarized light falls on the surface of a transparent medium; find the equations which determine the angle of incidence, when the quantity of polarized light in the reflected pencil is greatest.
7. Light polarized perpendicularly to the plane of incidence falls upon a plate inclosed between two media of different refractive powers; find the angle of incidence on the first surface of the plate, when the light is wholly transmitted at the second.
8. A polarized ray falls on the surface of a transparent plate; find the relation between the plane of polarization of the ray reflected at the first surface, and that of the ray reflected at the second surface, and twice transmitted through the first.
9. A molecule of the ether is agitated at the same time by two equal rectangular vibrations, which differ in phase; find the semiaxes of the ellipse in the resulting elliptic vibration.
10. When polarized light is reflected from metals, what is the difference of phase of the two component pencils (polarized respectively in the plane of incidence and in the perpendicular plane) at the three critical incidences, o°, "principal incidence," and 90° ?
11. Describe and explain the phenomena of refraction produced when a polarized ray is incident perpendicularly upon a prism of quartz, whose first surface is perpendicular to the optic axis of the crystal.
12. Knowing the rotation in the plane of polarization of a polarized ray, produced by transmission through a plate of quartz cut perpendicularly to the optic axis, calculate the interval of retardation of the two component circularly-polarized rays within the crystal.
1. State with precision Coulomb's method of investigating the laws of electric force.
2. How did he investigate the law of distribution of electricity at the surface of insulated conductors? Give the empirical formula which expresses the law of distribution on a circular plate.
3. If the charge is given at any instant, find the expression for its amount at the end of t minutes.
4. What is the law of distribution at the surface of ellipsoidal conductors? How is this deduced mathematically from the law of electric force?
5. What was Biot's method of investigating the electric condition of the atmosphere in his balloon ascent ?
6. What explanation does Biot give of the mutual attraction and repulsion of gilt pith-balls?
7. Give Volta's theory of the action of the pile, and deduce from it the mathematical expression of the electric condition of each part of the pile, supposing the wet cloths to be perfect conductors.
8. What was Grotthuss's electro-chemical theory of decomposition? What objection does Faraday make to it? and what view does he propose of electrolysis?
9. State the formula for expressing the interpolar intensity in a system consisting of b piles of a cells. In the case of 72 cells, what is the best arrangement if the interpolar resistance be 10 times a cell-resistance? Compare the internal and external resistances in this case with those of the other possible arrangements,
10. How may the electromotive forces of two cells be compared by means of a Rheostat and a Galvanometer?
11. Two elementary currents are at right angles, and in the same plane; if the distance of their middle points be given, what should be their relative position in order that their mutual action shall be a maximum ?
12. Investigate the action of a circular current on a magnetic pole at the vertex of a right cone of which the circular current is the base.
1. What are the principles of Laplace's investigation of the laws of elastic force and temperature of gas, subject to compression or dilatation, without any variation in their quantity of heat?
2. The two equations which express these laws may be reduced to the form
in which P, t, and d express the pressure, temperature, and density, and k the ratio of specific heats under constant pressure and constant volume.
3. A volume of air at 60° is raised in temperature under constant pressure until its volume is doubled; it is then compressed into its original volume. What will be its final temperature, supposing it to lose none of its heat?
4. In the Report of the Commissioners appointed to superintend the construction of New Parliamentary Standards of Length and Weight, they define 212° on the Fahrenheit scale as "the temperature of steam under Laplace's standard, atmospheric pressure, or the atmospheric pressure corresponding to the following number of inches in the barometric reading reduced to 32° F., viz.,
29.9218 +0.0766 × cosine (2 latitude)
+0.00000179 x height in feet above the sea." Explain this statement.