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8. An amount of an organic acid destitute of nitrogen which weighed 8.16 grains, when subjected to ultimate analysis gave 17.56 grains of carbonic acid, and 7.20 grains of water; 10 grains also of its salt of silver when ignited left 5.179 grains of metallic silver. What is the atomic weight of the absolute acid, assuming it to be monobasic, and the formula which expresses its constitution?

9. What is the approximate expression of Kopp for deducing from the results of experiment the specific gravity of the vapour of a liquid, and why, with a view to such object, is a perfectly exact method of calculation unnecessary?

10. Explain how glycerine may be converted into acroleine, and acroleine into acrylic acid; state also the composition of ethylene ether, and describe the reactions by which it may be insulated.

11. Write the formulæ of benzol, and carbolic acid, and explain the processes by which each may be converted into aniline.

12. Name a hydrocarbon belonging to each of the following formulæ, viz.:-C2nH2n, С2nH2n-1, C2nH2n+1H, C2nH2n-2, and explain how it may be insulated.

13. Write the formula of the hydrated oxide of tetrethylium, and explain the successive steps of the process by which it may be prepared.

14. Adopting the atomic weights of Gerhardt, and his views in relation to the constitution of the hydrated acids, write the formula of hydrated succinic acid, of the acid succinate of potassium, of neutral succinate of same metal, and of succinic anhydrocele.

15. Explain, and illustrate by examples, the methods of preparing amides, diamides, nitriles, and amidated acids. Mention also the hydrocyanic ether with which valeronitrile is isomeric.

16. Double ethers have been made by Williamson, and double hydrocarbons by Würtz; what were their processes?

17. Mention the chief source of acetal, and write its rational formula as usually given, and also in the form proposed by Würtz.

18. How is the ketone of propionic acid made, and with what aldehyd is it isomeric?

19. Write the formula of the benzoic peroxide of Brodie, and explain the means by which he prepared it.

o. Give the composition of tartaric and racemic acids, and state how they differ in their optical characters and chemical reactions. Mention also the method by which Pastear resolved racemic acid into the Detroand Levo-tartaric acids.



1. In what cryptogamic plants have we the first appearance of an axis, bearing spirally inserted leaves?

2. In what stage of development do Ferns produce Antheridia and Archegonia?

3. Give examples of the several kinds of monocarpic plants.

4. By what external characters is the root of an annual commonly known from that of a biennial?

5. When a biennial has a root like that of an annual, which of its other organs is usually modified, in compensation, and how?

6. How does a rootstock, like that of a Primrose, differ from an ordinary stem

7. Describe the manner in which the life of one of our ground Orchids (as O. maculata or O. mascula) is prolonged from year to year.

8. Define the terms whorled, decussate, secund, amplexicaul, decurrent, sheathing, as applied to leaves.

9. Define the terms ciliate, crenate, serrate, sinuate, incised, lobed, divided, as applied to simple leaves.

10. Define the terms truncate, retuse, emarginate, mucronate, cristate, as applied to the apex of leaves.

11. Define the term bract; and mention cases in which bracts supply the place of absent or depauperated floral envelopes.

12. Give examples of the various kinds of stipules.

13. Name and define the different varieties of centripetal and centrifugal inflorescence.

14. If the calyx-tube be wholly adnate, what will be the insertion of the corolla?

15. What is the distinction between an unsymmetrical and an irregular flower?

16. Enumerate and define the principal forms of monopetalous co


what are

17. Unilocular anthers may occur from either of two causes; they?

18. What British plants have the pollen in masses, not as dust ?

19. Describe the mode of fertilization of ovules, and state the changes that take place in the ovule after fertilization.

20. What is the function of the placenta, and from what part of the carpel is it developed ?

21. How have "free central" placentæ been explained?

22. Out of what part of the ovary are the endocarp and sarcocarp of a drupe developed?

23. What are the various origins of tendrils, and their function?

24. In what climates and soils do annual plants most abound? 25. Name, in the order of their importance, the structural characters which assist in the determination of the natural affinities of plants.

SYSTEMATIC BOTANY.- —(Bentham's British Flora.)

26. What remarkable forms occur in the petals of certain British genera of Ranunculaceæ ?

27. By what floral characters is Myosurus known from Ranunculus ? 28. What British genera of Cruciferæ have indehiscent pods?

29. What is the character of the petals in Reseda, and how are they inserted?

30. What is peculiar in the stamens of Helianthemum (Rock-cist)?

31. Which of the British species of Viola has large, leafy, divided stipules?

32. By what characters are Malvacea known from Tiliaceæ ?

33. How is Geranium distinguished from Erodium and Pelargonium? 34. What is the number of stamens; and what the nature of the anthers in Polygala?

35. How should you describe the foliage of the common Furze (Ulex)?

36. These varieties of fruit-Drupe, Follicle, Achene, Pome,-occur in the order Rosacea; name the British genera which respectively produce them.

37. Describe Sedum Anglicum as best you can; its aspect, foliage, flowers.

38. Which of the British Saxifrages have free or nearly free ovaries? 39. Describe the fruit of an Umbellifer.

40. Name and distinguish the suborders of Caprifoliacea.

41. By what characters are the suborders of Composite distinguished ? 42. Which suborder of Composite has a milky, bitter juice and by what floral characters is it known from the other suborders?

43. What is the insertion of the stamens; and what the character of the ovary in Campanulaceæ ?

44. Describe the stamens and pollen usual in Ericaceæ.

45. By what floral characters is the common Ling or Heather (Erica vulgaris) known from other British heaths?

46. What is the usual æstivation of the corolla; and what the structure of the ovary in Gentianeæ ?

47. What is the structure of the ovary in Polemoniacea?

48. Digitalis and Veronica are both referred to Scrophularineæ; they differ in many respects; in what characters then do they agree?

49. Give the history in this country of Elodea Canadensis, and name the Order to which it belongs.

50. How is the Woodrush (Luzula) known from the Rush (Juncus)?



1. How are the Amoeba distinguished from the Foraminifera ?

2. Describe the structure of a typical Corallite.

3. Give the Sub-orders and chief Families of the Zoantharia.

4. Describe the Corona of an Echinus.

5. Describe and name the Families of Echinidea.

6. Describe the relations that exist between Tænia, Cysticercus, Conurus, and Echinococcus.

7. Into what Orders would you divide the Crustacea?

8. Trace the development, from the egg to the perfect state, of the common Cricket and of any Butterfly.

9. How are the Polyzoa distinguished from the Hydrozoa?

10. Contrast the circulation in Terebratula and in the common Oyster.

II. Give a short description of the osseous system as met with among the Selachii and the Teleostei.

12. How do the Fish and Amphibia differ from the Reptilia?

13. What are the chief peculiarities of the Marsupialia?

14. Give the Orders and Sub-orders of the Mammalia.

15. Give the geographical distribution of the following:-Gavial, Humming Bird, Capybara, Emeu, Cassowary, Koala, Llama, Wapiti, Reindeer, Great Anteater.

16. Refer the specimens marked 1, 2, and 3, to their respective Orders and families.

17. Describe minutely the structure, and state the number, of the incisor teeth in the Hare.

18. In digestion two kinds of processes concur-what are they?

19. What does Claude Bernard say are the respective offices of the parotid, sublingual, and submaxillary glands?

20. What glands in the intestine secrete the intestinal juice?

21. Who first saw and who first described the Blood discs ?

22. Describe the circulation of the Blood in an ordinary Fish, Reptile, and Mammal.

23. The food having become chyle in the intestines is carried to the heart; how?

24. How is respiration effected in a Fish (Gadus), an Ophidian (Coluber), a Tortoise, a Bird, and a Ruminant?

25. Describe the ovum of a Mammal and of a Bird.

Moderatorships in Logics and Ethics.



JAMES W. BARLOW, M. A., Professor of History.

THOMAS E. WEBB, LL. D., Professor of Moral Philosophy.


1. Enumerate and describe the various Logical Desiderata which Bacon mentions.

2. Our Methods of Inquiry, according to Locke, depend on the nature of the Ideas we examine, and the Truth we search for?

3. Reid accuses Berkeley of not having gone as far as Hume when starting from the same principles. This criticism, according to Cousin, is unjust?

4. In one respect the Philosophy of Kant was more empirical than that of Locke?

5. State the principal articles of the Cartesian Philosophy which are now incorporated in the accredited Philosophy of Europe.

6. The Phenomena of Memory apparently conflict with Stewart's doctrine of Conception. How does Stewart obviate the difficulty?

7. Logical Investigation in Mathematical Science is characterized by two peculiarities? Every Mathematical Definition may be considered as involving a Postulate?

8. Whately objects to the vulgar idea of the nature of Syllogizing? Mill contends that the vulgar idea is the more correct?

9. Point out the radical error of Brown's Theory of Ratiocination.

10. Show the absence of any scientific ground for the distinction between the Cause of a Phenomenon and its Conditions, and for that between Agent and Patient in Causation.

11. Give an account of the Method of Residues, and show its scientific value.

12. Give a summary account of the Evidence of the Law of Universal Causation.



1. State and criticize Dr. Brown's theory of Generalization.

2. Give a general classification of the opinions of philosophers as to the nature and origin of the Principle of Causality.

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