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3. "The law of the Conditioned, in one of its applications, constitutes the law of Causality." Explain this statement.

4. On what grounds was the Kantian classification of the mental phenomena rejected by Krug?

5. Give Aristotle's refutation of the Platonic doctrine of the Pleasurable. What is Sir William Hamilton's theory?

6. Discuss the question whether Sight be exclusively the sense which affords us a knowledge of extension, or whether it does this only conjunctly with Touch.

7. In the application of Consciousness to the study of its own phenomena, what peculiar difficulties are encountered?

8. How does Hamilton prove that there is but one possible method of Philosophy?

9. Write a note on the following assertion of Mr. Mansel :—“Instead of considering the whole of Metaphysics to be based on a delusion, and its ultimate destiny to be utter extinction, we shall probably come nearer to the truth, if we regard its unsound portions as based on a perverted intuition, and anticipate that it will be finally absorbed in that science to which the intuition in its original relation properly belongs."

10. Investigate the relation in which Formal Logic stands to the cognate science of Universal Grammar.

11. Mansel quotes a passage from the Ethics of Aristotle, in which the twofold character of the special axioms of Geometry is remarkably expressed. Give the quotation, and explain its meaning.

12. A presentative cognition of the non-ego, says Mr. Mansel, is the soundest view (a) in common sense, (b) in Philosophy. Consider each of these statements.



1. What is the argument from Final Causes as applied to Morals? How is it strengthened? What cautions are to be observed ?-and how is the difficulty removed which arises from neglecting them? What instance does Butler mention to illustrate the nature of the argument?

2. What is the "licentious" objection to this argument?—and state fully Butler's remarks on it, and answers to it.

3. What is Butler's summary of the argument contained in the first three Sermons?

4. In the Sermon on the Government of the Tongue, against what erroneous interpretation of the text does he warn us?-and what distinction is overlooked in this interpretation?

5. What is the fault referred to? State, at some length, the evils resulting from it.

6. What is the objection made to the exercise of Compassion ?-and how does Butler answer it,-from analogy, Scripture, and from showing the good effects resulting from its exercise?

7. What are the various abuses of deliberate Resentment ?-and what feature characterizes them all? Which only has even a shadow of


8. What two serious reflections are suggested by Butler's account of the passion of Resentment?

9. State, as fully as you can, Butler's argument showing the unlawfulness of Revenge, and the mischief arising from it.

10. Show how Self-deceit partakes of the ordinary characters of Vice. In what respects, however, it differs from common wickedness, such as robbery or murder; and what there is in the temper itself positively vicious and culpable; with Butler's illustrations of this.

11. State, at length, the three consequences and reflections suggested by the observation of our own ignorance.



1. State, and give Cicero's refutations of, the arguments of Panatius against the immortality of the soul.

2. For what reasons did Cato reject the theory of Carneades, that with respect to the whole question "de bonis et malis" the dispute between the Stoics and Peripatetics was merely verbal ?

3. Give a summary of the Stoical doctrine concerning the "præposita."

4. What functions were attributed to "dialectica" and "physica" in the systems of Epicurus and Zeno?


1. Οὐδεμία τῶν ἠθικῶν ἀρετῶν φύσει ἡμῖν ἐγγίνεται.

2. πᾶσι δοκεῖ ἕκαστα τῶν ἠθῶν ὑπαρχειν φύσει πως.

3. Reconcile these apparently conflicting statements, and show how far Virtue is the result of Nature, of Teaching, and of Habit.

4. Give Archer Butler's explanation of Plato's Moral Paradoxes.


Moderatorships in History, Political Science, and English Literature.


MOUNTIFORD LONGFIELD, LL. D., Professor of Feudal and English Law. JOHN TOLEKEN, M. D.


JOHN K. INGRAM, LL. D., Professor of English Literature.
JAMES W. BARLOW, M. A., Professor of English History.



1. Give some account of the League of Lombardy and the League of Tuscany. What was the main difference in the objects of these confederations?

2. Write short notices of the life of (a) Charles I. of Naples, (b) Nicola di Rienzi.

3. Give a sketch of the constitutional history of the reign of Henry IV.

4. Origin of the Act which gave to proclamations the force of law? It contained one very singular provision? The statute itself affords a striking testimony to the free constitution it infringed?

5. "The doctrine of uncontrollable privilege of Parliament is eminently dangerous in a free country." Support this statement of Mr. Hallam by instances from English history.

6. Discuss the justice of the following estimate of the merits of the Duke of Marlborough :-" His whole life was such a picture of meanness and treachery, that one must rate military services very high indeed to preserve any esteem for his memory."

7. On what grounds does Hallam refuse to join in the praises which have been showered upon Cromwell for the just administration of the laws under his dominion?

8. Relate anything you know of the lives of the members of the Cabal administration.


1. The condition of Freemen, between the invasion of the Barbarians and the establishment of Feudality, has been the subject of much variety of opinion. Give an account of this controversy.

Distinguish accurately between the Tributarii, Lidi, and Coloni; and give a summary of M. Guerard's conclusions respecting the gradual decline of Servitude.

2. Enumerate, and give a short history of, the great ancient Fiefs of the Crown up to the time of their total or partial annexation to France.

3. Give an account of the origin and ultimate constitution of the Electoral College of Germany. What was the famous privilege of Austria?

4. Describe the progress of Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction and Immunities from the eleventh century. Give a history of the Pragmatic Sanction of Charles VII., and of the principal Concordats of France and Germany.

5. M. Guizot, in describing the state of the Church from the fifth to the twelfth centuries, considers it under a threefold aspect. Give a summary of his conclusions.

6. Describe the origin and progress of Maritime Law in the Middle Ages. The custom of Reprisals appeared under various forms; how long did it continue to exist?

7. Most important occurrences in the reign of Louis XIV., between the death of Cardinal Mazarin and the peace of Aix la Chapelle?

8. Give a biographical sketch of Cardinal Dubois, describing in particular his contests with the Parliament of Paris.






1. Write notes on the italicised words and phrases in the following extracts from Chaucer and other old writers:-









"All sodeinly
She passeth as it were a skie
All clene out of this ladies sight."

"He rode upon a rouncie as he couthe."
"A vernicle had he sewed upon his cappe."
"Anon he gave to the sick man his bɔte."
"And swiche he was ypreved often sithes."
"Of whom achatours mighten take ensemple."

"He hadde in danger at his owen gise
The yonge girles of his diocise."

"In curtesie was sette ful moche hire lest."

"Wel coude he in eschanges sheldes selle."
"For him was lever han at his beddes head"
"In termes hadde he cas and domes alle

That fro the time of King Will. weren falle.”
"And many a breme and many a luce in stewe."
"My Donet to lerne."



2. Mention from which of Shakspeare's plays each of the following sentences is taken, by whom each is spoken, and to whom addressed, in the place where it occurs. Also explain all the allusions, and comment on such phrases as call for notice :












"Swear priests, and cowards, and men cautelous,
That welcome wrongs
but do not stain
The even virtue of our enterprise,
Nor the insuppressive metal of our spirits,
To think that or our cause or our performance
Did need an oath.”

"O name him not; let us not break with him,
For he will never follow anything
That other men begin."

"Am I so round with you, as you with me,
That, like a football, you do spurn me thus ?"
"Much is breeding,

Which, like the courser's hair, hath yet but life,
And not a serpent's poison."

"Near him thy angel
Becomes a Fear, as being o'erpowered; therefore
Make space enough between you.”

"And now is this Vice's dagger become a squire.”
"Who dares

In purity of manhood stand upright,
And say, 'This man's a flatterer'? If one be,
So are they all; for every grize of fortune
Is smooth'd by that below."

"So wise so young, they say, do ne'er live long-
Pr. What do you say, uncle?

G. I say, without characters, Fame lives long.
Thus like the formal Vice Iniquity,

I moralize two meanings in the word."

"Your prattling nurse
Into a rapture lets her baby cry,

While she chats him; the kitchen malkin pins
Her richest lockram 'bout her reechy neck,
Clambering the walls to eye him."

"We turn not back the silks upon the merchant,

When we have spoiled them; nor the remainder viands
We do not throw in unrespective sieve

Because we now are full."

"Not to comply with heat (the young affects In me defunct) and proper satisfaction.

And heav'n defend your good souls, that you think

I will your serious and great business scant,
When she is with me.'


"Do you but mark how this becomes the house?
'Dear daughter, I confess that I am old!
Age is unnecessary: on my knees I beg

That you'll vouchsafe me raiment, bed, and food."'
"But now [I] grow fearful .
That you protect this cause, and put it on
By your allowance; which if you shall, the fault


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