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7. Describe and contrast the radio-ulnar articulations.

8. Classify and enumerate the branches of the lumbar plexus.

9. The peculiarities of the circulating organs in Reptilia.

10. Mention any osteological characters distinctive of the Mammalia.



1. Enumerate the escharotics which are in most general use; give the formula of each, and the manner of preparing it.

2. There are three mineral salts occasionally employed to produce an emetic action; mention their names, the doses in which they are given, and how they may be distinguished from each other.

3. Write the formulæ of oil of vitriol, carbonate of potash, crystallized carbonate of soda, chloride of calcium, phosphate of soda, and valerianate of soda; and state why each of these preparations is directed to be kept in a close bottle.

4. At one time physiologists were very anxious to prove that blood, in passing from the venous to the arterial state, experiences an increase of specific heat. What was the cause of this anxiety, and why does it no longer exist?

5. Mention the constituent parts and the arrangement of a Groves' galvanic machine, and how by means of it you would apply electropuncture.

6. Enumerate the proximate constituents of milk; and state the particulars in which the milk of the cow, of the ass, and of the human female,

differ from each other.

7. How would you determine the amount of lithic and hippuric acid in a quart of urine?

8. How is sulphur most readily shown to be present in a proteinic compound, and how is its amount best determined?

9. Specify the various tests which have been proposed for albumen in solution, and mention that which you consider to be most delicate.

10. Write the composition of glycerine, state how it is procured, and its relation to the ordinary fatty or oleaginous bodies.




Translate the following passages :

I. Beginning, Ἐπεὶ δὲ τὰ πρὸς τὴν γνῶσιν διωρίκαμεν ἱκανῶς, κ. τ. λ.

Ending, ὠφέλιμα ταῦτ' ἐστὶ τοῖς τιμῶσι τὴν χρηματιστικήν
Lib. i. c. 8.

2. Beginning, ̓Αλλὰ μὴν οὐδ ̓ εἰ τοῦτο ἄριστόν ἐστι, κ. τ. λ. Ending, τινὲς τῶν τὰς τῆς γῆς περιόδους πραγματευομένων

Lib. ii. c. 3.

3. Beginning, ’Αλλ ̓ ἴσως οὐ παντα ταῦτα λέγεται καλῶς, κ. τ. λ. Ending, τοὺς δὲ κατὰ τὰς παρεκβεβηκυίας οὐ δικαίους. Lib. iii. c. II.

1. State and comment on Aristotle's view of Ostracism.

2. Give an account of the notice taken by Aristotle of the Athenian Polity.

3. What is Aristotle's view of the question of slavery ?

4 Aristotle seems to have referred the legislation of Lycurgus to a time different from that commonly assumed?

5. State in detail Aristotle's criticism on the Spartan constitution.

6. Write a note on the following passage:

οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τ ̓ ἐπιτηδεῦσαι τὰ τῆς ἀρετῆς ζῶντα βίον βάναυσον ἢ θητικόν.


Translate the following passages :


1. Beginning, Λοιπὸν δ ̓ ἐστὶν ἡμῖν περί τε τῆς νομιζομένης, κ. τ. λ. Ending, ὥσπερ ἐν τοῖς κατ' ἀρχὴν εἴπομεν.

Lib. vi. c. 8.

2. Beginning, Τίνα δὲ τρόπον γίνεται παρὰ δημοκρατίαν, κ. τ. λ. Ending, ὀλιγαρχικὸν δὲ τὸ ἀπὸ τιμήματος.

Lib. vi. c. 9.

3. Beginning, Ετέρα δ' ἀρχὴ, πρὸς ἥν ἀναγράφεσθαι, κ. τ. λ. Ending, τὰς δὲ παρὰ τούτων ἑτέρους.

Lib. vi. c. 8.

4. Beginning, Τοῦ μὲν οὖν μὴ κλέπτεσθαι τὰ κοινὰ, κ. τ. λ.
Ending, δὲ τοῖς ἐκ τῆς πολιτείας ἐγχειρίζειν μόνοις ἢ πλείοσι.

Lib. viii. c. 8.


1. Give some particulars of the history of Aristotle's friend, Hermeias of Atarneus.

2. Notice some of the different opinions which have been held as to the division of Aristotle's works into acroatic and exoteric.

3. What special causes of revolution does Aristotle point out in democracies, oligarchies, and aristocracies, respectively ?

4. Give the substance of his criticism of the opinions of Plato as to the changes incident to different kinds of government.

5. Write historical notes on the following passages :—

καὶ ἐν Αργει οἱ γνώριμοι εὐδοκιμήσαντες περὶ τὴν ἐν Μαντινείᾳ μάχην τὴν πρὸς Λακεδαιμονίους ἐπεχείρησαν καταλυειν τὸν δῆμον.

VIII. 4.

ἤ ὅταν τινὲς ἀτιμάζωνται μεγάλοι ὄντες καὶ μηθενὸς ἥττους κατ' ἀρετὴν ὑπὸ τινῶν ἐντιμωτέρων, οἷον Λύσανδρος ὑπὸ τῶν βασιλέων,

VIII. 7.

6. Write notes on the meaning of the following words, as employed by Aristotle in the Politics:—ἐριθεία, καινοτομέω, μεσίδιος, παράστασις, ποταγωγίς, ἀγωγή, κακοπραγία.

BOOKS IV. V. (Congreve's Edition.)


Translate the following passages into English, adding such comments as you think necessary :

1. Beginning, Περὶ δὲ τῆς πρὸς τὴν θάλατταν κοινωνίας, κ. τ. λ. Ending, ώσπερ κατὰ γῆν, καὶ κατὰ θάλατταν.

Lib. iv. c. 6.

2. Beginning, Τὰς δὲ τοῖς θείοις ἀποδεδομένας οἰκήσεις, κ. τ. λ. Ending, ταύτην δὲ πρὸς τὰς ἀναγκαίας πράξεις.

Lib. iv. c. 12.

3. Beginning, Τὴν δὲ μουσικὴν ἤδη διαπορήσειεν ἄν τις, κ. τ. λ. Ending, εἶναι τῶν ἐλευθέρων, ἐν ταύτῃ τάττουσι.

Lib. v. c. 3.

r. Discuss the question-In what order the Books of Aristotle's Politics ought to be arranged?

2. M. Brandis notices the general coincidence of the political conclusions of Plato and Aristotle. Mention some of the principal views in which they agree.

3. Mr. Congreve says,-"It is when we come to the general tendency of the two philosophers that the difference between them becomes striking." Develop this remark.

4. The growth of certain new social elements since Aristotle's time has rendered his construction obsolete in all but its fundamental ideas?

5. Contrast the points of view of Aristotle and Demosthenes, with respect to contemporary Grecian affairs.


Translate the following passage into Greek Prose, in the style of Aristotle :


If we would picture to ourselves the true notion which the Greeks embodied in the word róλic, we must lay aside all modern ideas respecting the nature and object of a state. With us practically, if not in theory, the object of a state hardly embraces more than the protection of life and property. The Greeks, on the other hand, had the most vivid conception of the state as a whole, every part of which was to co-operate to some great end to which all other duties were considered as subordinate. Thus the aim of democracy was said to be liberty; wealth, of oligarchy; and education, of aristocracy. In all governments the endeavour was to draw the social union as close as possible, and it seems to have been with this view that Aristotle laid down a principle which answered well enough to the accidental circumstances of the Grecian states, that a róλiç must be of a certain size.

This unity of purpose was nowhere so fully carried out as in the government of Sparta; and if Sparta is to be looked upon as the model of a Dorian state, we may add, in the other Dorian governments. Whether Spartan governments in their essential parts were the creation of a single master-mind, or the result of circumstances modified only by the genius of Lycurgus, their design was evidently to unite the governing body among themselves against the superior numbers of the subject population. The division of lands, the syssitia, the education of their youth, all tended to this great object. The most important thing next to union among themselves, was to divide the subject class, and accordingly we find the government conferring some of the rights of citizenship on the helots. The periaci are not to be considered as a subject class, but rather as a distinct people, separated by their customs, as well as by their origin, from the genuine Spartans. Nothing can be more erroneous than to look upon them as an oppressed race. Even their exclusion from the assembly cannot be viewed in this light; for, had they possessed the privilege, their residence in the country would have debarred them from its exercise.

What perversions in the form of government, according to Greek ideas, were sufficient to destroy the essential notion of a citizen, is a question which we must be content to leave undecided. He who, being personally free, enjoyed the fullest political privileges, participated in the assembly and courts of judicature, was eligible to the highest offices, and received all this by inheritance from his ancestors, most entirely satisfied the idea which the Greeks expressed in the word woλITηS.-JOWETT.



Genesis (LXX.).

1. What are the chief ancient authorities from which we derive our information about the origin of the Septuagint ?

2. Mention some of the internal evidence (from Genesis) which has been adduced to show its Alexandrian origin.

3. In what form has what remains of Aquila, Symmachus, and Theodotion been preserved to us?

4. Give some account of them.

5. What do Kurtz and Hengstenberg think of the "Maleach-Jehovah"?

6. What did the change of Sarah's name import?-and how is it thought that the manner in which the LXX. presents that change corresponds with the etymology?

7. "Sarah laughed within herself, saying, ouπw μèv poɩ yeyovεv ëwc τοῦ νῦν· ὁ δὲ κύριός μου πρεσβύτερος.” What application is made of this passage in the New Testament?

8. "Sarah saw the son of Hagar mocking." How is this mocking to be understood? and what turn is given to the passage by St. Paul?

9. "If thou doest not well, sin lieth at the door. And unto thee shall be his desire, and thou shalt rule over him." Give the rendering in LXX.

10. Give the interpretations of Rosenmüller and Schumann.

11. Give an account of the chronological differences between the Hebrew and LXX. in the ages of the patriarchs.

12. How does the Hebrew differ from the LXX. and New Testament with respect to the younger Cainan ?

13. Kennicott thinks that the Hebrew presents difficulties in the patriarchical chronology which the Greek does not-why?

14 oi yiyavres. Give an account of the Hebrew word, and its relation to the Greek, and state briefly the views of Kurtz and Schumann.

15. What word did Aquila use?

16. Explain the difference between the Hebrew names of the Deity, according to the analysis of Kurtz.

17. State the theory of Hengstenberg, and the objections to it by Kurtz (out of Genesis).

18. How is the etymology of these names shown to agree with the different meanings assigned to them?

19. Explain the bearing of the two texts cited by Kurtz on the signification of the name Jehovah.

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