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39. ἵνα τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ πνεύματος λάβωμεν διὰ τῆς πίστεως. Give the substance of Gwynne's criticism on Alford's interpretation here.

40. οὐ λέγει καὶ τοῖς σπέρμασιν ὡς ἐπὶ πολλῶν, ἀλλ ̓ ὡς ἐφ ̓ ἑνὸς καὶ τῷ σπέρματί ὅς ἐστι Χριστός. What is the difficulty in the reasoning here, and what solutions are given of it?

41. Different opinions about the sense of Xpioros here?

42. Give Alford's view.

43. How does he show that Paul and the LXX. are correct in their chronology in reference to the 430 years mentioned in Galatians ?

44. "A mediator is not a mediator of one," &c. In Gwynne's interpretation, what view is given of "the law added because of transgressions," and of "the mediator"?

45. What other opinions about xápiv?

46. Give briefly the interpretations of Ellicott, Gwynne, and Alford of the passage.

47. What Jewish appellation was applied to Moses, answering to μɛoiτης

48. διαταγεὶς δι ̓ ἀγγέλων. Giveillustrative passages from the Psalms, Pentateuch, and N. T.

49. Tà σTOIXεTα Tov кóσμov. State (after Ellicott) the physical and ethical interpretations, and which is to be preferred.

50. Give the other instances of its occurrence in the N. T.

51. "Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I am as ye are: ye have not injured me at all. Ye know how through infirmity of the flesh I preached the Gospel to you at the first." Write a paraphrase explanatory of the meaning of the passage, correcting the E. V. where required, and giving the views of Gwynne and Alford.

52. What evidences are there that the Epistle was written mainly for Gentile readers, and not only to Jews living in Galatia.

53. Describe

a. The geographical position of Galatia;

b. Its chief towns;

c. The history of settlement by the Galatians. 54. Write a note on the following passage :—

"They zealously affect you, but not well; yea, they would exclude you, that ye might affect them. But it is good to be zealously affected always in a good thing, and not only when I am present with you.”

55. ἅτινα ἐστιν ἀλληγορούμενα· αὗται γάρ εἰσι δυό διαθῆκαι· μιά μὲν ἀπὸ ὄρους Σινᾶ, εἰς δουλείαν γεννῶσα, ἥτις ἐστὶ "Αγαρ· τὸ γὰρ ̓Αγαρ Σινᾶ ὄρος ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ ̓Αραβίᾳ· συστοιχεῖ δὲ τῷ νυν Ἱερουσαλὴμ, δουλεύει γὰρ μετὰ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς. Give a paraphrastic translation of the whole passage (correcting the E. V.).

56. Is there any modern confirmation of Chrysostom's view of rò Yàp ̓Αγαρ, κ. τ. λ. ?

57. Give the various readings, and the rendering of the Vulgate.

58. ἡμεῖς γὰρ πνεύματι ἐκ πίστεως ἐλπίδα δικαιοσύνης ἀπεκδεχόμε0a. Give the substance of Gwynne's note here.

59. καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν Ἰσραὴλ τοῦ Θεοῦ. What reason against understanding here the καὶ ἐξηγητιγόν?

60. If not, how is the passage to be interpreted?




Write a hortatory exposition of the words, Rom. ii. 6, 7; adhering strictly to the truth inculcated, and illustrating your comment by other passages from S. Paul's writings.

I. In what respect is Natural Theology at a disadvantage as compared with other sciences?

2. The à priori and the à posteriori arguments for the existence of God have each an intuitional element?

3. What germ of Truth does Hegel's principle of "the identity of contradictories" contain?

4. State the fundamental dogma of all forms of Pantheism.

5. State briefly the heads of a reply to some one of the forms of Pantheism.

6. What is Archbishop King's explanation of the efficacy of prayer?

7. The recent work of M. Renan illustrates the two elements of antiChristian literature?

8. Give some account of the government of Palestine in the Apostolic age.

9. On what principle is "the higher criticism" of our day to be encountered?

10. How has it been attempted to evade the testimony of S. Justin M. to the authenticity of the Gospels? Show the weakness of this attempt.

11. Dr. Thomas Brown exposes the fallacy of Hume's famous argument against Miracles?

12. How do Rationalists attempt to evade the arguments founded on the completion of Prophecy? Show that this attempt is vain.

13. What is the theological meaning of the word Person? 14. State the Catholic doctrine of the Incarnation.

15. Write a brief note on the word OεOTÓKoç.

16. Our Lord's own words supply the foundation of the doctrine of the Atonement?

17. State in a concise manner the nature of the ceremonies connected with "the scape-goat."

18. Give the principal texts on which the Church founds the doctrine that the Holy Ghost is God.



1. State the various views which may be entertained on the question of the Origin of Ideas and the Origin of Knowledge.

2. Give some account of the various Theories which have been advanced to explain the Phenomena of Perception.

3. Give some account of the controversy between Realism, Nominalism, and Conceptualism.

4. Enumerate the advantages to be derived from the study of Mental Science, and the dangers to which that study is exposed.

5. Compare the views of Hume, Maine de Biran, and Cousin on the subject of Causation.

6. Distinguish the various elements which enter the composition of Man's Moral Nature.

7. Is Morality susceptible of demonstration ?


1. Explain fully the reasons for which Bacon describes experientia literata as "venatio Panis."


"Translatio experimenti triplex" ? Give as many examples of each class as you can recollect.

3. What does Bacon mean by "philosophia prima"?

4. Show how the three experimental methods of Agreement, Difference, and Concomitant Variations are exemplified in the inductive processes which produced the Theory of Dew. The comparative inapplicability of the method of Difference to cases of pure observation is strikingly illustrated in the investigation?

5. Mill shows by an example the extensive scope which exists for deductive investigation in the Science of Mind?

6. In the great deduction which proves the identity of gravity and the central force of the solar system, all the three parts of the deductive pro

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cess may be found? In what case is the Hypothetical Method legitimate, and what example of this does Mill give from Newton?

7. What, according to Mill, are the grounds of the present certainty of the law of Causality?

8. According to Mansel, there are only two theories of mathematical necessity which have fairly attempted to account for the impossibility of conceiving the reversal of the synthetical axioms of geometry. Discuss these theories.

9. In what respects, and for what reasons, does Mansel differ from Kant in his classification of the Forms of Judgment?

10. Compare the views of Kant and Mansel with respect to the logical nature of the Hypothetical Syllogism.

11. Mansel produces two striking examples as specimens of the confident manner in which philosophers have been prone to dogmatize upon the highest matters of speculation, upon no better basis than the absence of all materials for speculating at all?

12. Enunciate distinct axioms for the second, third, and fourth figures of syllogism. On what grounds is the fourth figure defended by Lambert, and how does Mansel reply?


1. How does Butler obviate the difficulties which he says may be raised about the assertion that Virtue has a tendency to prevail over Vice?

2. Show briefly that the opinion of Necessity does not affect the proof of Religion.

3. How does Butler show that the only question respecting Christianity is whether it be a real revelation ?

4. Explain and discuss the supposition that the doubtfulness in the evidence of Religion may be a part of the trial of some persons.

5. Show that love to our enemies is the law of our nature.

6. Religion, says Butler, often addresses itself to Self-love. Give instances of this.

7. "To be convinced that any course of behaviour is our duty has little influence on our actions." How, then, is right behaviour to be enforced? Illustrate from Butler's own method.

8. State the allegory by which Leibnitz illustrated his theory of Optimism.

9. State and comment on the difficulties in the theoretical history of language suggested by Stewart.

10. What is Paley's statement of the question as to the existence of a moral sense? Show that it is not correct,




Trinity Term.



והרעב היה על כל פני הארץ ויפתח יוסף את כל אשר בהם .56 .xli וישבר למצרים וגו' :

a. This passage has been explained in two different ways?

b. The Hebræo-Samaritan text in this passage gives several various readings?

c. Write down the LXX. and Peschito renderings of the passage. ? use

xli. 47.

on 1537 Alsowo

Translate this, write down the original, and give the rendering of the LXX.


xlii. I.

a. Give the reading of the Hebræo-Samaritan text, and supply the vowel points to it.

b. Give the renderings of the LXX. and the Peschito.

למה תתראו :

כי עבדך ערב את הנער מעם אבי לאמר וגו' :


xliv. 32.

a. What variant does the Hebræo-Samaritan text exhibit, and what probably occasioned the different readings?

b. Write down the translation of this clause by the LXX.

ואתה צויתה זאת עשו קחו לכם וגו':

5. xlv. 19.

a. What is the Masoretic pointing of the word ", and how is the context opposed to this vocalization?

b. The authority of the LXX. and that of Onkelos likewise condemn the vocalization of the Masorets? Show that the rendering of the Peschito is ambiguous.

c. What variant does the Hebræo-Samaritan text exhibit, and how may it be accounted for?

.פוטי פרע פוטיפר


a. What was probably the Egyptian name which these names expressed, and what is the etymology of it?

b. How are these names expressed in the LXX. and the Peschito?

7. What principle was generally observed by the LXX. translators in expressing proper names of which the etymologies are given in the original text?

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