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8. In what different ways do they render the combination of the Hebrew finite verb with the infinitive absolute ?

9. How do they render the Hebrew infinitive with the preposition ↳ prefixed?

10. With respect to the first Syriac mater lectionis, prove from the New Testament that the enunciation of the Eastern is more correct than that of the Western Syriac Christians.

II. State the chief arguments which have been urged in support of the opinion that the Samaritan recension of the Pentateuch came into the hands of the Samaritans from the ten tribes whom they succeeded.

12. What variants in this recension does Gesenius think to be preferable to the readings of the Masoretic text?

The Candidates were also examined vivâ voce in Hebrew, in the selected chapters of the Peschito Version, in the prescribed parts of Dr. Wall's work, and in Walton's Prolegomena.



Tertulliani Liber Apologeticus.

1. What was Gibbon's sarcastic supposition with regard to the Apologies of the early Christians?

2. One striking circumstance may account in some measure for the fact, that Tertullian's Apology failed in its object to a great extent?

3. (a.) When was this Apology written?

(b.) What other work by Tertullian corresponds closely with it, and was composed for the same purpose?

(c.) The commencement of another treatise is almost an epitome of the Apology?

4. A passage in Suetonius is frequently referred to respecting the "Christ ?"


5. With regard to Tertullian's statement, (Cap. v.) that the Emperor Tiberius proposed to the Senate that our Lord should be numbered amongst the Roman Deities, can you state what alteration in the words, "Senatus, quia non ipse probaverat, respuit," was suggested by Bp. Pearson and others? And upon what grounds is such a change in the text objectionable?

6. "Literæ M. Aurelii . . . quibus illam Germanicam sitim Christianorum forte militum precationibus impetrato imbri discussam contestatur." (Cap. v.)

(a.) Translate this passage.

(6.) Mention particulars as to the narrative in question.
(c.) How is the word "forte" interpreted by Mosheim?

7. "Cum vel ex forma omnibus mysteriis silentii fides debeatur.” (Cap. vii.)

(a.) Write some remarks on this passage relative to the Disciplina Arcani.

(b.) Is there any earlier evidence upon this subject?

8. "Infantes penes Africam Saturno immolabantur palam usque ad proconsulatum Tiberii, qui ipsos Sacerdotes in eisdem arboribus templi sui obumbratricibus scelerum votivis crucibus exposuit, teste militia patriæ nostræ." (Cap. ix.)

(a.) Translate.

(b.) Can Saturn, as here spoken of, be identified with any other false god?

9. “Item illi, qui munere in arena noxiorum jugulatorum sanguinem recentem avida siti comitiali morbo medentes hauserunt, ubi sunt?" (Cap. ix.) Translate.

10. What two circumstances served as a foundation for the charge of Atheism, brought against the primitive Christians? (Tertull. Apol. et Eccl. Smyrn. Ep.)

11. "Vidimus aliquando Atyn, illum deum ex Pessinunte; et qui vivus ardebat Herculem induerat. Risimus et inter ludicras meridianorum crudelitates Mercurium mortuos cauterio examinantem." (Cap. xv.) -Translate.


"Sed et qui Crucis nos religiosos putat consecraneus noster erit. Cum lignum aliquod propitiatur, viderit habitus, dum materiæ qualitas eadem sit; viderit forma, dum id ipsum dei corpus sit." (Cap. xvi.)

(a.) Translate.

(b.) How is this passage generally arranged?

(c.) Does it prove that the Cross was anciently worshipped by Christians?

13. Dr. Woodham, in a note in his edition of Tertullian's Apology, mentions the time and occasion when Christianity first became a Religio licita?

14. Five points of discrepance between Judaism and Christianity noted by Tertullian? (Cap. xxi.)

15. "Duobus enim adventibus Ejus significatis, primo, qui jam expunctus est in humilitate conditionis humanæ ; secundo, qui concludendo sæculo imminet in sublimitate Divinitatis exserta; primum non intelligendo, secundum, quem manifestius prædicatum sperant, unum existimaverunt." (Cap. xxi.)-Translate.

16. Et tamen eum mundi casum relatum in archivis vestris habetis." (Cap. xxi.)-What is the reading of this passage adopted by Gibbon, in a note on the fifteenth Chapter of his History? And how does he attempt to explain Tertullian's statement, that pagan records contained an account of the miraculous darkness at the time of the Crucifixion of our Lord?

17. "Licuerit et Christo commentari Divinitatem rem propriam; non qui rupices et adhuc feros homines multitudine tot Numinum demerendorum attonitos efficiendo ad humanitatem temperaret, quod Numa; sed qui jam expolitos, et ipsa urbanitate deceptos, in agnitionem veritatis ocularet." (Cap. xxi.)-Translate.

18. What evidence is supplied by Tertullian, with respect to the fact of the continuance of Miraculous Gifts in his time?

19. Tertullian dwells upon two principal counts in the indictment brought by the Heathen against Christians?

20. "Sine monitore, quia de pectore, oramus." (Cap. xxx.)-These words have been misinterpreted with reference to extempore prayer?

21. "Paratus est ad omne supplicium ipse habitus orantis Christiani." (Cap. xxx.)-Explain.


"Qui vim maximam universo orbi imminentem, ipsamque clausulam sæculi, acerbitates horrendas comminantem, Romani imperii commeatu scimus retardari." (Cap. xxxii.)

(a.) Translate.

(b.) State fully the meaning of the word " commeatus."

(c.) What passage in Scripture is here referred to ?

23. By whom were the titles "Dominus" and "Deus," as applied to the Roman Emperor, legalized and enjoined ?

24. "Ut quis sensit, ita et intulit, aut reformavit. Nec mirum, si vetus instrumentum ingenia Philosophorum interverterunt. Ex horum semine et nostram hanc novitiolam paraturam viri quidam suis opinionibus ad Philosophicas sententias adulteraverunt." (Cap. xlvii.)—Translate.

25. What names do Tertullian and other ancient writers constantly give to the intermediate state?

Ecclesia Smyrnensis Epistola.

26. Καὶ τὸ πῦρ ἦν αὐτοῖς ψυχρὸν τὸ τῶν ἀπηνῶν βασανιστῶν. (§. ii.)-Cite a parallel passage from a remarkable Apocryphal document, part of which is inserted in our Prayer-Book.

27. Πολλὰ γὰρ ἐμηχανᾶτο κατ ̓ αὐτῶν ὁ Διάβολος. (f. iii.)-These words may be illustrated by the language of our Blessed Lord?"

28. The Church of Smyrna took occasion from the conduct of Quintus, a Phrygian, to discourage a certain practice? (§. iv.)

29. What day was called the "Great Sabbath?" (§. viii.)

30. S. Polycarp would not swear by the Genius of Cæsar. (§. ix.)— Tertullian (Apol. Cap. xxxii.) mentions another oath, which was not objected to by the primitive Christians?-The latter may have been regarded as being in conformity with a passage in the Book of Genesis?

31. Ογδοήκοντα καὶ ἕξ ἔτη ἔχω δουλεύων Αὐτῷ. (§. ix.)

(a.) What is the question with regard to the meaning of this passage?

(b.) Chishull endeavours to uphold Bp. Pearson's arguments. On what grounds?

(c.) If one supposition be admitted, a serious difficulty may arise as to the age of S. Polycarp when he was ordained a Bishop by S. John?

(d.) Dr. Jacobson, in a recent edition of his very valuable "Patres Apostolici," assents to an opinion, with which manifestly less perplexity is connected than with another?

32. Οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τῆς ἀσεβείας διδάσκαλος. (§. xii.)

(a.) Another reading of this clause is supported by good authority? (b.) The testimony of S. Jerom, relative to S. Polycarp, is in harmony with the altered reading?

33. Some of S. Polycarp's adversaries were especially active at the time of his Martyrdom ?—This is in accordance with words in Scripture ?

34. A liturgical passage occurs in S. Polycarp's last prayer?

35. Καὶ γὰρ εὐωδίας τοσαύτης ἀντελαβόμεθα. (§. xv.)—How has Dr. Middleton, in his Free Inquiry, perverted these words?

36. ̓Εξῆλθε περιστερὰ καὶ πλῆθος αἵματος. (§. xvi.)

(a.) State the various conjectural readings of this passage.
(b.) What assistance to be derived from Eusebius respecting it?

(c.) Dr. Middleton's suggestion affords an instance of the heartlessness produced by Scepticism?

(d.) What is Dr. Jacobson's opinion concerning εpotepá?

(e.) Dr. Wordsworth, in an Appendix to his work on S. Hippolytus, has proposed an ingenious solution of the difficulty?

37. Testimony of the Church of Smyrna with respect to the Worship of Saints?

38. Samuel Basnage and Bingham trace a remarkable observance to the Smyrnæan Christians in the second century?

39. Βασιλεύοντος δὲ εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. (§. xxi.)-At what period, and under what circumstances, was a similar formula used in dating Charters ?

S. Hippolytus.

40. (a.) Porto attracts some notice in ancient Christian History? (b.) How far was it from Rome and Ostia?

41. (a.) In what year, and by whom, was the previously prevalent opinion respecting the see of S. Hippolytus controverted?

(b.) The writer's theory was subsequently refuted?

42. (a.) To whom had the Philosophumena, when printed at Oxford in 1851, been ascribed ?

(b.) Of what celebrated work does this treatise enable us to recover part of the original text?

43. Through what influence mainly was the Apocalypse, as an inspired work of S. John, preserved to the Church of Rome?

44. An erroneous Latin version of a passage in a well-known book is supposed by Cotelier (whom Dr. Wordsworth follows) to have given rise to the notion that S. Hippolytus was Bishop of Bosra in Arabia?

45. Give some account of the character of the Clergy and Laity of the Roman Church in the beginning of the third century.-Names of the Bishops of Rome whom S. Hippolytus resisted?

46. What furnished the first clew for the discovery of the author of the MS. Treatise on Heresy, found in a Monastery on Mount Athos in 1842 ? and what was that clew?

47. (a.) In the ninth book of the Philosophumena mention is made of the Catacombs ?

(b.) Why is this an interesting notice of them?

[The remainder of the Examination was conducted vivâ voce.]

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