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Altar Lights, Plate, Hangings, and Decorations.

1547. 1 Edward VI.]

Altar Lights.


"And shall suffer from henceforth no torches nor candles, tapers or images of wax, to be set before any image or picture, but only TWO LIGHTS UPON THE HIGH ALTAR, before the Sacrament, which, for the signification that CHRIST is the very true light of the world, they shall suffer to remain still." -Injunctions of K. Edward VI.


1547. 2 Edward VI.] "Item, whether they suffer any torches, candles, tapers, or any other lights to be in your churches, but only two lights upon the High Altar."-Articles to be enquired of in the Diocese of Canterbury.


1547.] "They reduced candles, formerly sans number in churches, to two, upon the High Altar, before the Sacrament; these being termed lights, shews they were not lumina cæca, but burning."-Fuller's Church History, p. 374, fol. 1655.


1548. 2. Edw. VI.] "Paid to the sexton for scouring the candlesticks 21d.

"For two pound of candles on Xtmas-day 5d."— Churchwardens' Account of the Parish of S. Martin's, Leicester.

Nichol's History and Antiquities of Leicestershire, vol. I. part II. p. 571, fol. 1815.


The Pax.

1548. 2 Edward VI.] "And the clerk in the like manner shall bring down the Pax, and standing without the church door, shall say boldly to the people these words: This is a token of joyful peace, which is betwixt GOD and men's conscience; CHRIST alone is the peace-maker, which straitly commands peace between brother and brother.'"-Injunctions given by the King's Visitors to the Clergy and Laity of the Deanery of Doncastre.


Order for the Retention of Altar Lights, &c. in Churches. 1558. 1 Eliz.] "Provided always and be it enacted, that such ornaments of the church ...... shall be retained and be in use, as was in this Church of England, by authority of Parliament, in the second year of the reign of Edward VI. until other order shall be therein taken, by the authority of the Queen's Majesty, with the advice of her Commissioners appointed and authorized under the great seal of England for causes ecclesiastical, or of the Metropolitan of this realm."-Act of Conformity, c. 2.


Altar Lights and Crucifires in Churches.

1559. 1 Eliz.] "But beside the habits, this Divine (whether it was Grindal, or Parkhurst, or some one else) had made his observation of other things which he disliked in that degree, as to doubt the undertaking of the Episcopal office upon him, lest in so doing he might seem to approve, and uphold, and countenance those things. And they were these......II. the enjoining unleavened bread to be used in the Sacrament [of the Altar]...... IV. The processions in Rogation week......V. The image of the crucifix on the Communion Table in the administration of the Supper......Concerning the use of the crucifix to be still retained in the churches, the Divine before mentioned was so offended at it, that in his letter to Dr. Martyr, he desired him, and Bullinger, and Bernardin to write to the Queen against it. But Martyr excused himself by reason of his great business...... The Queen, indeed, being used to these things, that is, crosses and Saints' images in churches, where

she and her nobles that resorted thither used to give honour to them, had them at first in her own chapel. But she seemed to have laid them aside......But it seems not long after the Queen resumed burning lights and the image of the crucifix again upon the Altar in her oratory."-Strype's Annals, pp. 171-173, fol. 1709.


1560. 2 Eliz.] "She [Queen Elizabeth] was known still to be favourable to the use of crosses and crucifixes, and they continued to be exhibited not merely in her own chapel, but also in many of the churches. Bishop Cox, in writing to P. Martyr in August 1559, says, 'excepto quod crucis Crucifixique imaginem in templis tolerare cogantur, omnia religionis capita, quæ Edwardi tempore, tenent. (Hess, Cat. vol. ii. p. 122.) Sampson to the same in the following January, asks, si princeps ita injungat omnibus episcopis et pastoribus ut vel admittant in suas ecclesias imaginem cum candelis, vel ministerio verbi cedant, quid hic faciendum sit?' (Hess, Cat. vol. ii. p. 131. Burnet, II. R., P. 2, p. 397.) And Bishop Jewel, in February 1560, says to the same, Nunc ardet lis illa crucularia.... Eo enim jam res pervenit ut aut cruces argenteæ et stanneæ, quas nos ubique confregimus, restituendæ sunt, aut episcopatus relinquendi.' (Hess, Cat. vol. ii. p. 133. Burnet, H. R. vol iii. P. 3, p. 390.) It appears from the same letter that a disputation was to be held on the subject, and that Parker and Cox had undertaken to defend the use of crosses, against Grindal and Jewel, who were most earnest in opposing them."-Dr. Cardwell's Documentary Annals, vol. i. pp. 236, 237. Note.


1561. 3 Eliz.] "Paid for four pound of candles upon Xtmas Day in the morning, for the Mass, 12d. Churchwarden's Accounts of the parish of Abington, Berkshire."-Illustrations of the Manners and Expenses of Ancient Times in England, p. 142. 4to. 1797.


Altar Lights, a Crucifix, and Plate, in Queen Elizabeth's Chapel. 1560. 2 Eliz.] "The Altar [in the Queen's Chapel] furnished with rich plate, two fair gilt candlesticks with tapers in them, and a massy crucifix of silver in the midst thereof.”—Heylyn's History of the Reformation, p. 124, fol. 1661.


1560.] "March 6th, Dr. Bill, Dean of Westminster, preached in the Queen's Chapel where on the table standing Altarwise was placed a cross and two candlesticks with two tapers in them burning.” [12]

"The same day [the 24th] in the afternoon, Bishop Barlow, one of King Edward's Bishops, now Bishop of Chichester, preached in his habit before the Queen. His sermon ended at five of the clock: and presently after, her chapel went to Evening song; the cross, as before, standing on the Altar, and two candlesticks, and two tapers burning in them: and service concluded, a good Anthem sung.— Strype's Annals, pp. 196, 197.


1560.] "What can I hope, when three of our lately appointed Bishops are to officiate at the Table of the LORD, one as priest, another as deacon, and a third as subdeacon, before the image of the crucifix, or at least not far from it, with candles, and habited in the golden vestments of the papacy; and are thus to celebrate the LORD'S Supper without any sermon?"-Letter of T. Sampson to Peter Martyr, Jan. 6, 1560. The Zurich Letters, p. 63. 8vo. 1842.


1565. 8 Eliz.] "The Queen still to this year kept the crucifix in her chapel, as appears by a letter written to Secretary Cecil by a zealous gentleman, earnestly persuading him to use his interest with her Majesty to have it removed, as tending too much to idolatry."Strype's Annals, p. 471.


1565.] "Item. The said chapel, both before and behind the stalls to the ground, was hanged with rich arras, and the upper part, from the Table of Administration to the stalls, hanged with like stuff, which said Table was richly garnished with plate and jewels, as followeth. First, to the wall was set in a row, five gilt basons, and afore them another row, and in the middle a gilt cross between two great gilt cups covered, garnished with stone, a ship or ark* likewise garnished, a fountain of mother-of-pearl, and a pair of gilt candlesticks; afore that, another row, in the middle whereof was set a rich bason and ewer, gilt railed over with gold, between

* A vessel for holding incense.-EDITORS.

two great maudlin cups with covers, two great lavers, two cruets, and a pax, all gilt; and over the said Table on the wall upon the arras was fastened a front of cloth of silver, embroidered with angels of gold, and before the said Table to the ground, a front of the same suit.

"The order and manner of furnishing the chapel at the Queen's Palace of Westminster, against Thursday, the 24th of January 1565, anno 8 Eliz. Reginæ, that the Duke of Norfolk and Earl of Leicester received the order of S. Michael there."-Ashmole's Institution, &c. of the Order of the Garter, p. 369, fol. 1672.


1565.] "The back part of the stalls in the royal chapel wherein the gentlemen of the chapel do sing, was hanged with rich tapestry, representing the twelve months, and the front of the said stalls was also covered with rich arras. The upper part of the chapel, from the table of administration to the stalls, was hanged with cloth of gold, and on the south side was a rich traverse for the Queen. The Communion-table was richly furnished with plate and jewels, viz. a fountain and basin of mother-of-pearl, a basin and a fountain gilt, railed with gold; a rich basin garnished with stones and pearls; a ship or ark garnished with stones; two great leires garnished with stones, and two lesser leires garnished with stones and pearls; a bird of agate furnished with stones; a cup of agate furnished with stones and pearls: a bowl of coral garnished with pearls; a bowl of crystal with a cover; two candlesticks of crystal; two ships of mother-of-pearl; one tablet of gold set with diamonds; another ship of mother-of-pearl: two pair of candlesticks of gold; two great candlesticks, double gilt, with lights of virgin wax, and a Over the said table on the wall, upon the cloth of gold, was fastened a front of rich cloth of gold set with pelicans; before the said table hung, reaching to the ground, another front of the said suit. Also there was let down from the roof of the said chapel ten candlesticks in manner of lamps of silver and gilt, with great chains, every one having three great wax lights. Over the aforesaid table was set on a shelf as high as the window, twenty-one candlesticks of gold and silver double gilt with 24 lights. On the north side of the quire between the organs and the upper windows, stood 17 candlesticks, double gilt, with 17 lights; and on the tops of the stalls were fastened certain candlesticks with 12 lights, so that the whole lights


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