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which they shrunk away, but complained to the Archbishop, who sending for Crowley, deprived him of his living, and confined him to his house, for saying he would not suffer the wolf to come to his flock."-Neale's History of the Puritans, vol. 1. p. 181.


1559.] "September 8, were celebrated the obsequies of Henry the French king, in S. Paul's choir; which was all hung with black and arms, and his hearse garnished with thirty dozen of pensils, and fifteen dozen of escutcheons of arms. The hearse was garnished with great escutcheons, bossed with great crowns; and all under feet with black, and a great pall of cloth of gold, and coatarmour, target, sword, and crest. The lord-treasurer was chiefmourner, next the lord-chamberlain......and many more mourners all in black. There were fourteen heralds-of-arms attending in their coat-armour, following after the lords. Then dirge was sung, and then they repaired to the Bishop's palace to dinner. Thence in the afternoon they came to church again, the heralds before them. And the service was then performed: the Archbishop of Canterbury elect was minister; Scory, elect of Hereford, preached; the third Bishop was Barlow, elect of Chichester."-Strype's Life of Grindal, p. 26.

[237] Rogation Processions.

Item. "That in the Rogation days of Procession, they sing or say in English, the two psalms beginning, Benedic anima mea, &c., with the litany and suffrages thereunto, with one homily of thanksgiving to God already devised and divided into four parts, without addition of any superstitious ceremonies heretofore used."-Articles for Administration of Prayer and Sacraments. Ordinances accorded by the Archbishop of Canterbury.


1572] "In the Gang week, when the priest in his surplice, singing Gospels and making crosses, rangeth about in many places upon the Ember days."-A View of Popish Abuses, &c. p. 14.


Situation and Position of the Officiating Minister.

1573.] "There is a third fault which likewise appeareth almost in the whole body of this service and liturgy of England, and that

is, that the profit which might have come by it to the people is not reaped. Whereof the cause is, for that he which readeth is not in some places heard, and in the most places not understanded of the people, through the distance of place between the people and the minister; so that a great part of the people cannot of knowledge tell whether he hath cursed them or blessed them, whether he hath read in Latin or in English,- all the which riseth upon the words of the book of service, which are that the minister should stand in the accustomed place: for thereupon the minister in saying morning and evening prayer sitteth in the chancel with his back to the people, as though he had some secret talk with GOD which the people might not hear. And hereupon it is likewise that after morning prayer, for saying another number of prayers, he climbeth up to the further end of the chancel and runneth as far from the people as the wall will let him, as though there were some variance between the people and the minister, or as though he were afraid of some infection of plague. And indeed it reneweth the memory of the Levitical priesthood, which did withdraw himself from the people into the place called the holiest place, where he talked with GOD, and offered for the sins of the people.

"Likewise for marriage he cometh back again into the body of the church,* and for baptism unto the church-door. What comeliness, what decency, what edifying is this? Decency (I say) in running and trudging from place to place: edifying, in standing in that place and after that sort where he can worst be heard and understanded......Now if it be said for the chapters and litany there is commandment given that they should be read in the body of the church, indeed it is true; and thereof is easily perceived this disorder which is in saying the rest of the prayers, partly in the hither end, and partly in the further end, of the chancel: for, seeing that those are read in the body of the church that the people may both

*"At the Reformation, that part of the [marriage] ceremony (and it was the greatest part) which used to be performed at the church-door, was directed to be performed in the body of the church, and at the time of divine service, that the congregation might be witnesses. The body of the church occurs in the rubrick of our present form; and when I was a stripling I recollect this rule being exactly followed in Lambeth church. Hassocks were placed in the middle aisle below the reading-desk; the service to the conclusion of the first blessing being there read, there was a remove to the Communion-rails to finish the rest of the office.". Letter from Rev. George North, Dec. 7, 1748. Illustrations of the Manners and Expences of Ancient Times in England, Appendix, p. 13, 4to. 1797.-EDD.

hear and understand what is read, what should be the cause why the rest should be read further off, unless it be that either those things are not to be heard of them, or at the least not so necessary for them to be heard as the others which are recited in the body or midst of the church?"-A Reply to an Answer, &c. p. 134.


Celebration of Divine Service.


1572.] "In all their order of service there is no edification according to the rule of the Apostle, but confusion. They toss the psalms in most places like tennis-balls...... The people, some standing, some walking, some talking, some reading, some praying by themselves, attend not to the minister. He again posteth it over as fast as he can gallop; for either he hath two places to serve, or else there are some games to be played in the afternoon, as lying for the whetstone, heathenish dancing for the ring, a bear or a bull to be baited, or else Jackanapes to ride on horseback, or an interlude to be played, and if no place else can be gotten, this interlude must be played in the church, &c. Now the people sit, and now they stand up. When the Old Testament is read, or the lessons, they make no reverence; but when the Gospel cometh, then they all stand up..... When JESUS is named, then off goeth the cap, and down goeth the knees, with such a scraping on the ground, that they cannot hear a good while after, so that the Word is hindered; but when any other names of GOD are mentioned they make no courtesy at all...... We speak not of ringing when matins is done and other abuses incident, because we shall be answered that by the book they are not maintained, only we desire to have a book to reform it. As for organs and curious singing, though they be proper to popish dens, I mean to cathedral churches, yet some others also must have them. The Queen's chapel, and these churches (which should be spectacles of Christian reformation), are rather patterns and precedents to the people of all superstitions."-A View of Popish Abuses, &c. pp. 10, 11. [241]

1559.] "Whensoever the name of JESUS shall be in any lesson, sermon, or otherwise in the church, pronounced, due reverence be made of all persons, young and old, with lowness of courtesy, and uncovering of heads of the mankind, as thereunto doth necessarily belong, and heretofore hath been accustomed."-Queen Elizabeth's Injunctions.

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[242] Penance.

1571] "That they should not church any unmarried women which hath been gotten with child out of lawful matrimony; except it were upon a Sunday or holy day; and except either she, before childbed, had done penance, or at her churching did acknowledge her fault before the congregation."-Abp. Grindal's Injunctions.


1580.] "First, I wish at every public penance a sermon, if it be possible, be had. Secondly, In the same sermon the grievousness of the offence is to be opened; the party to be exhorted to unfeigned repentance, with assurance of God's mercy if they so do; and doubling of their damnation, if they remain either obstinate, or feign repentance where none is, and so lying to the HOLY GHOST. Thirdly, Where no sermon is, there let a homily be read, meet for the purpose. Fourthly, Let the offender be set directly over against the pulpit during the sermon or homily, and there stand bare-headed, with the sheet or other accustomed note of difference; and that upon some board, raised a foot and a half at least above the church floor, that they may be in loco editiore, et eminentiores omni populo, i. e. in an higher place, and above all the people. Fifthly, Item. It is very requisite that the preacher in some place of his sermon, or the curate after the end of the homily, remaining still in the pulpit, shall publickly interrogate the offenders, whether they do confess their fault, and whether they do truly repent: and that the said offenders or penitents should answer directly, every one after another (if they be many), much like to this short form following, mutatis mutandis.

Preacher. Dost thou not here, before GOD and this congregation assembled in His name, confess that thou didst commit such an offence, viz. fornication, adultery, incest, &c.?

Penitent. I do confess it before GOD and this congregation.

Preacher. Dost thou not also confess, that in so doing thou hast not only grievously offended against the Majesty of GoD in breaking His commandment, and so deserved everlasting damnation, but also offended the Church of GOD by thy wicked example? Penitent. All this I confess unfeignedly.

Preacher. Art thou truly and heartily sorrowful for this thine offence?

Penitent. I am, from the bottom of my heart.

Preacher. Dost thou ask GOD and this congregation heartily forgiveness for thy sin and offence: and dost thou faithfully promise from henceforth to live a godly and Christian life, and never to commit the like offence again?

Penitent. I do ask GoD and this congregation heartily forgiveness for my sin and offence; and do faithfully promise from henceforth to live a godly and Christian life, and never to commit the like offence again.

This done, the preacher or minister may briefly speak what they think meet for the time, place, and person; desiring in the end the congregation present to pray GoD for the penitent, &c., and the rather, if they see any good signs of repentance in the said penitent."-Form of Penance devised by Abp. Grindal. Strype's Life of Grindal, p. 261.


1583.] "That from henceforth there be no commutation of penance, but in rare respects and upon great consideration; and when it shall appear to the Bishop himself, that that shall be the best way for winning and reforming of the offender, and that the penalty be employed either to the relief of the poor of that parish, or to other godly uses, and the same well witnessed and made manifest to the congregation: and yet if the fault be notorious, that the offender make some satisfaction, either in his own person with declarations of his repentance openly in the church, or else that the minister of the church openly in the pulpit signify to his people his submission and declaration of his repentance done before the Ordinary, and also, in token of his repentance, what portion of money he hath given to be employed in the uses above named." -Archbishop Whitgift's Articles touching Preachers, &c. Cardwell's Documentary Annals, vol. 1. p. 415.


The Pastoral Staff and Chasuble in use at Ordinations. 1572.] "Then [in the old Church'] after trial and vocation they were admitted to their function, by laying on of the hands of the company of the eldership only. Now there is (neither of these being looked unto) required a surplice, a vestment, a pastoral staff, &c."—An Admonition to the Parliament, p. 4.*

* Whitgift, however, calls this "a false and untrue report." (The Defence of the Answers, &c. )- EDD.

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