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because it is an instance of peculiar consideration to us of this diocese [Durham], in which alone it is to be met with. It is, the 'constant use of the surplice by all preachers in their pulpits.' And it is said to have taken rise from an opinion of Bishop Cosins, that as surplices were to be worn at all times of the ministration,' and preaching was properly the ministration of the Word of God,'* therefore surplices were to be worn in the pulpit as well as in the desk, or on other occasions of the ministry."-Visitation Charges on the Rubrick, by T. Sharp, D.D., Archdeacon of Northumberland, p. 206, 8vo. 1834.

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1839.] "In country places, I have often, when young, seen clergymen preach in surplice."-A Correspondent in the British Magazine, No. LXXXVIII. p. 302.


1842.] "I apprehend, that for some time after the Reformation, when sermons were preached only in the morning as part of the Communion service, the preacher always wore a surplice, (or possibly an alb or close-sleeved surplice); a custom which has been retained in cathedral churches and college chapels ...... When there is only one officiating clergyman, and the prayer for the Church militant is read, which must be read in a surplice, it seems better that he should preach in the surplice, than quit the church after the sermon for the purpose of changing his habit. It would perhaps be most consonant with the intention of the Church, if the preacher wore a surplice when preaching after [during ?] the morning service, and a gown when the sermon is in the evening."-Charge by the Lord Bishop of London, pp. 53, 54.


1842.] “The case [submitted to me] is the difficulty experienced in resuming the service after the sermon, by reason of the requisite change of the dresses appropriated in practice respectively to the pulpit and the Communion-table. My solution of the difficulty is comprised in the following suggestions. First, what is the obligation on a clergyman to use a dress in the pulpit different from that which he wears during his other ministrations? Secondly, does not the order for his dress, during his ministrations in general, include

* At all events the morning sermon forms part of the "administration of the Holy Communion."-EDD.

his ministration in the pulpit? and thus would not the surplice be properly worn at any time for the sermon by the parochial clergy, as it is by those in cathedral churches and college chapels? But thirdly, at all events, where the circumstances of the case make the dress desirable, does there appear any impropriety in its use?

"If, indeed, it were at all times worn by the preacher, it might tend to correct an impropriety, not to say an indecency, which is too apt to prevail in our churches, by reason of the change which takes place before the sermon: when the preacher, attended perhaps by the other clergy, if others be present, quits the church for the vestryroom, after the Nicene Creed; thus leaves his congregation to carry on a part of the service, admitting, psalmody to be such, without their minister; an absolute anomaly, as I apprehend it, in Christian worship, that the people should act without their minister; deprives them of his superintendence during that exercise, and of his example in setting before them the becoming posture and a solemn deportment in celebrating GOD's praises; and at length, after an absence of several minutes, during which he has been employing himself in any way but that of common worship with his people in God's House, he returns at the close of the psalm to the congregation, and ascends the pulpit in the character of the preacher. Now all this is, in my judgment, open to much animadversion. And the best mode of correcting it appears to be, for the minister to proceed immediately after the Nicene Creed to the pulpit, attired as he is—for the Church certainly gives no order or sanction for the change of his attire -and so be prepared to take part with his people in the singing, if singing be at that time desirable, or if not, to proceed at once with his sermon."-Charge by the Lord Bishop of Down and Connor and Dromore, pp. 26, 27.


Copes, Chasubles, &c. appointed to be worn by Bishops, and at the Holy Communion.

1548, 2 Edw. VI.] "And whensoever the bishop shall celebrate the Holy Communion in the church, or execute any other public ministration, he shall have upon him, beside his rochet, a surplice or alb, and a cope or vestment, and also his pastoral staff in his hand, or else borne or holden by his chaplain. Upon the day and at the time appointed for the ministration of the Holy Communion,

the priest that shall execute the holy ministry, shall put upon him the vesture appointed for that ministration, that is to say, a white alb plain with a vestment or cope. And where there be many priests or deacons, there so many shall be ready to help the priest in the ministration as shall be requisite; and shall have upon them likewise the vestures appointed for their ministry, that is to say, albs with tunicles [dalmatics]. Though there be none to communicate with thepr iest, yet these days [upon Wednesdays and Fridays] after the Litany ended the priest shall put upon him a plain alb or surplice, with a cope, and say all things at the altar (appointed to be said at the celebration of the LORD's Supper) until after the offertory; and the same order shall be used all other days, whensoever the people be customably assembled to pray in the church, and none disposed to communicate with the priest. In the saying or singing of matins and even-song, baptizing and burying, the minister in parish churches, and chapels annexed to the same, shall use a surplice. And in all cathedral churches and colleges, the archdeacons, deans, provosts, masters, prebendaries, and fellows, being graduates, may use in the quire, beside their surplices, such hoods as pertaineth to their several degrees which they have taken in any university within this realm. But in all other places, every minister shall be at liberty to use any surplice or no. It is also seemly that graduates when they preach, should use such hoods as pertaineth to their several degrees."*-First Prayer-book of Edward VI.


Copes, &c. appointed to be worn at Ordinations.

1549.] "After the exhortation ended, the archdeacon, or his deputy, shall present such as come to the bishop, every one of them that are presented having upon him a plain alb, and the archdeacon or his deputy shall say, &c.

"Then one of them appointed by the bishop, putting on a tunicle, shall read the Gospel for the day."-Form and manner of Ordering Deacons.

*The above rubricks were authorized by the Act of Uniformity, 2, 3 Edward VI. cap. I., and are consequently enforced by the present rubrick, which "enacts," to quote the recent Charge of the Bishop of London, p. 52, "that all the ornaments of ministers, at all times of their ministration, be the same as they were by authority of Parliament in the 2nd year of King Edward VI."-EDD.

"And when the archdeacon shall present unto the bishop all them that shall receive the order of priesthood that day, every of them having upon him a plain alb, the archdeacon saying, &c.

"The bishop shall deliver to every one of them, the Bible in the one hand, and the chalice or cup with the bread in the other hand, and say, &c."-The Form of Ordering of Priests.

"After the Gospel and Credo ended, first the elected bishop having upon him a surplice and cope, shall be presented by two bishops (being also in surplices and copes, and having their pastoral staves in their hands) unto the archbishop of that province, &c.

"Then shall the archbishop put into his hand the pastoral staff, saying, &c."-The Form of Consecration of an Archbishop or Bishop. Ordination Offices, published by Grafton, in 1549.


1641] "And these faults [sundry "corruptions" before enumerated] there are in that Book of Ordination which is of the last edition and most reformed. In the former edition (which seems by the words of the 36th Article to be, that we are required to subscribe unto, and which it may be some of the bishops do still use,) there are other corruptions, as that the cope, alb, surplice, tunicle, and pastoral staff are appointed to be used in ordination and consecration."-The Abolishing of the Book of Common Prayer by reason of above Fifty gross Corruptions in it, &c. p. 13, 4to. 1641.


Copes and Mitres worn at the Coronation of Edward VX. 1546.] First. There was a goodly stage richly hanged with cloth of gold and cloth of arras, and the steps from the choir contained two-and-twenty steps of height, and down to the high altar but fifteen steps, goodly carpeted, where the King's grace should tread with his nobles. Secondly. The high altar richly garnished with divers and costly jewels and ornaments of much estimation and value. And also the tombs on each side the high altar, richly hanged with fine gold and arras. Thirdly. In the midst of the stage was a goodly thing made of seven steps in height, where the King's majesty's chair-royal stood; and he sat therein, after he was crowned, all the mass-while. Fourthly. At nine of the clock all Westminster choir was in their copes, and three goodly crosses borne before them and after them other three goodly rich crosses, and


the King's chapel, with his children, following all in scarlet, with surplices and copes on their backs. And after them ten bishops in scarlet, with their rochets, and rich copes on their backs, and their mitres on their heads, did set forth at the west door of Westminster towards the King's palace, there to receive his Grace; and my Lord of Canterbury [Cranmer], with his cross before him alone, and his mitre on his head. And so past forth in order as before is said."Strype's Memorials of Cranmer, p. 142, fol. 1694.


Copes and Mitres worn at the Consecration of Bishops Poynet and Hooper, at Lambeth Chapel.

1550.] "Archbishop Cranmer having on his mitre and cope, usual in such cases, went into his chapel, handsomely and decently adorned, to celebrate the LORD's Supper according to the custom, and by prescript of the book intituled The Book of Common Service. Before the people there assembled, the holy suffrages first began, and were publickly recited, and the Epistle and Gospel read in the vulgar tongue, Nicholas [Ridley], Bishop of London, and Arthur [Bulkeley], Bishop of Bangor, assisting; and having their surplices and copes on, and their pastoral staves in their hands, led Dr. John Ponet, endued with the like habits, into the middle of them, unto the most reverend Father, and presented him unto him, sitting in a decent chair; and used these words, 'Most reverend Father in GOD, we present unto you this godly and well-learned man to be consecrated Bishop'...... These things being thus despatched, the Archbishop exhorted the people to prayer and supplication to the Most HIGH, according to the order prescribed in the Book of Ordination set forth in the month of March 1549. According to which order he was elected and consecrated, and endued with the episcopal ornaments, the Bishop of London first having read the third chapter of the first Epistle of [S.] Paul to [S.] Timothy, in manner of a sermon. (Cranmer's Register.) John Hooper was consecrated Bishop of Gloucester just after the same manner, by the Archbishop, Nicholas, Bishop of London, and John, Bishop of Rochester, assisting, clothed (say the words of the Register) in linen surplices and copes, and John, elect of Glocester, in the like habit."—Strype's Memorials of Cranmer, pp. 253, 254.

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