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Crucifixes and Altar-lights at S. Paul's Cathedral.

"April 17, 1644, 'the candlesticks, crucifixes, and other plate, that stood heretofore upon the altar,' were ordered to be sold by the Committee at Grocer's Hall, and the money to be employed for the publick safety."-Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, p. 13.


Altar-lights, Crucifixes, Images, Pictures, Plate, &c., zealously upheld by Bishop ren.

"And as he was.... most eager, keen, and active to innovate, change, alter, and deform what he pleased in or concerning the Church, to erect altars, to remove Tables, to make rails, to set up tapers and candlesticks, golden plate on altars, embroidered and carved images, crucifixes, saints' pictures, and such Babylonical idolatries, so was he most fervently zealous, and most wonderfully careful, to introduce a Ministry that should yield to all things, to bring in such as he knew most certainly to be for all turns, for all purposes, for all matters whatsoever should be put upon them, &c." -Wren's Anatomy, pp. 10, 11, 4to. 1641.


Lighted Tapers on, and Adoration towards, Altars, temp. Chas. I. "Altars next you raise,


And waxen tapers must upon them blaze;

Yea in these heaps of stone such worth is found,

That passers by must bow to 'em down to th' ground."

Mercury's Message, or the Copy of a Letter sent to William Laud late Archbishop of Canterbury, now prisoner in the Tower. Printed in the year of our Prelates' fear 1641.


Altar-lights, Crucifixes, Altar-cloths, Hangings, &c., at Oxford and Cambridge.

Ibid.] "There are divers high altars, solemnly dedicated of late in divers Colleges of Cambridge and Oxford, adorned with tapers, candlesticks, crucifixes, basins, crosses, rich altar-cloths, crimson cushions, rich hangings."—A Large Supplement, &c., p. 87, (note).


Turning towards the East at Prayers and Holy Communion, practised by the Clergy at Durham Cathedral, temp. Charles X.

1642.] "They offended likewise in turning their faces to the east, and forcing the people so to do............In this Dr. Cosins offended, not only in turning the reader's desk at morning prayer, and the Dean's pue [sic], that they could not sit with their backs to the east; but also when he administered the Communion he stood on the west side of the Table with his face towards the east, and back towards the people; which is a ceremony the Pope's priests are enjoined to use at Mass."-A Catalogue of Superstitious Innovations, &c., brought into Durham Cathedral, &c., p. 26. 4to. 1642.


Ibid.] "They constantly observe that unlawful ceremony of turning faces to the east, not allowed by the Church; and some, when they officiate at the Communion Table, look toward the east, turning their backs to the people, after the manner of Mass priests." -Ibid. p. 30.


Holy Communion celebrated at Durham Cathedral in the presence of non-Communicants, temp. Charles X.

"They took for assistants at the Communion, the whole quiremen and children which communicated not, contrary to the custom and practice of all cathedral churches."-Ibid. p. 28.



They offended in taking pipers and singers for assistants at the administration of the Holy Communion,-which are disturbers rather, which is an innovation in Durham, begun there when Dr. Cosins was made prebendary of that church; for both in England, and all other reformed Churches, all are commanded to depart which do not communicate." *-Ibid. p. 10.


Laity forbidden to enter the Sacrarium at Durham Cathedral, temp. Charles E.

"Whereas the rubrick saith, chancels shall remain as they have done in times past, our new-fangled Durhamers, and other country *See antè, p. 96, and p. 105, and note.-EDD.

priests (following their example) have made cancellos inter cancellos, chancels within chancels, that is, an enclosure, to divide their altar eastward from the quire, as the Sanctum Sanctorum was separated with curtains from the rest of the Temple. Who ever heard of two chancels in one church, till Durhamers invented it? contrary to this rubrick and the example of all churches in England in former times. So that they have a holy church, a more holy chancel, and at the east end thereof a most holy enclosure where the altar must stand, into which no man or woman may have access but priests only." -Ibid. p. 14.


Trine Emmersion, or Affusion.

1540.] Then the priest shall take the child in his hands, and ask the name; and naming the child, shall dip it in the water thrice. First, dipping the right side; second, the left side; the third time dipping the face towards the font: so it be discreetly and warily done."-First Prayer-Book of Edward VI. Rubrick in the Baptismal Office.


1638.] "In the ancient Church, the child to be baptized was thrice dipped in the font, in the Name of the FATHER, of the SON, and of the HOLY GHOST: semblably is he to be thrice aspersed with water on his face (if for fear of danger, not dipped, as the Book of Common Prayer appointeth), the priest using those sacramental words."-Bishop Montague's Visitation Articles, Camb. edit., p. 72.


Bishop Wren's mode of celebrating the Holy Eucharist.

"That the said Matthew Wren, being Bishop of Norwich the said year, 1636, in the Tower church in Ipswich, and other places, did in his own person use superstitious and idolatrous actions and gestures in the administration of the LORD's Supper, consecrating the bread and wine, standing at the west side of the Table with his face to the east, and his back towards the people; elevating the bread and wine so high as to be seen over his shoulders, bowing low either to or before them when he, after the elevation and consecration, had set them down on the Table."-Articles of Impeachment of the Commons against Matthew Wren, &c., p. 6, 4to. 1641.


Genuflexions towards the Eucharisic Elements, temp. Charles E.

1641.] "We speak only of their new adorations, which against the constant practice of the English Church they are now begun to use, without the act of receiving-a number of low cringes towards these elements: when they take the paten in their hand, a low inclinabo before the bread; when they set it down, another; when they take up the chalice, a third; when they set it down, a fourth." -A Large Supplement, &c., p. 54.

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'Goodly Pictures" in Archbishop Williams's Chapel.

"In my lord of Lincoln's private chapel are to be seen, beside the altar most richly furnished, close to the wall under the east window, many goodly pictures which cannot but strike the beholders with thoughts of piety and devotion at the entrance to so holy a place."-Ibid. p. 56, note.


Incense in Churches.


"1562. For frankincense to perfume the church, 1d.

For ditto, 2d.

1573. Item, for perfumes and frankincense for the Church, 8d.


1563. In the time of the sickness. 1625. The time of GOD's visitation.

at 3d. per lb., 2s. 6d.

Item, for juniper for the church, 2d.
Item, paid for 10 lbs. of frankincense

1665. Paid two several times for gum Benzoin (the principal ingredient in incense) to burn in the church, 2s. 6d.


1588. Juniper to air the chapel on S. Mark's day."

-Transactions of the Cambridge Camden Society, Part I. p. 271.


Adoration towards the Altar enforced and practised at S. John's
College, Cambridge.

1641.] "That in his college he did most tyrannically usurp conformity, and did exult in a most majestical way, commanding the Deans of the said College to execute the inflictions of severe

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punishments on all those who would not observe conformity: as to bow very low at the coming in at the chapel to the Communion Table, and likewise at the going out thereof, without any exception both of the Fellows, Scholars, and students of the said College."Articles exhibited in the Parliament against William Beale, D.D. and Master of S. John's College, Cambridge, p. 3, 4to. 1641.


"Mr. Barwick, according to the custom of his College and of the Primitive Church, did worship GoD by bowing towards the East."-The Life of the Rev. John Barwick, D.D., &c., p. 17, 8vo. 1724.


Turning towards the East at the "Gloria Patri" enforced at S. John's College, Cambridge.

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1641.] "That he commanded the Deans of the said College to severely punish according to the expressed infliction, who would not likewise convert their faces towards the east at Glory be to the FATHER,' &c.* and many times in Divine Service, so that he did luxuriously introduce Popish innovations."-Articles, &c. against William Beale, p. 5.


Zeal of the Multitude foc Processions and other pious observances. 1650.] "They ["the profane, ungodly, presumptuous multitude"] are as zealous for crosses and surplices, processions and perambulations, reading of a Gospel at a cross way, the observation of holidays and fasting-days, the repeating of the Litany or the like forms in the Common Prayer, the bowing at the naming of the word JESUS (while they reject His worship), the receiving of the Sacrament when they have no right to it, and that upon their knees, as if they were more reverent and devout than the true laborious servants of CHRIST; with a multitude of things which are only the traditions of their fathers; I say, they are as zealous for these as if eternal life consisted in them."-The Saints' Everlasting Rest, &c., by Richard Baxter, pp. 344, 345, 4to. 1650.

*We are informed that this custom was observed till of late, at Exeter Cathedral, and also that adoration towards the altar is still practised there by the Bishop and Clergy.-EDD.

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