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CHRIST on the Holy Table, or in the mystical elements, but only for the advancement of God's Majesty, and to give Him alone that honour and glory that is due unto Him, and no otherwise. And in the practice or omission of this rite, we desire that the rule of charity prescribed by the Apostle may be observed, which is, that they which use this rite, despise not them who use it not; and that they who use it not, condemn not those that use it."—Canon VII.


Stigmatised by Bishop Williams.

1641.] "Do you know of any parson, vicar, or curate that hath introduced any offensive rites or ceremonies into the Church not established by the laws of the land; as, namely, that make three courtesies towards the Communion-table, that call the said Table an altar, that enjoin the people at their coming into the church to bow towards the east, or towards the Communion-table ?”—Articles to be enquired of in the Diocese of Lincoln, 4to. Lond. 1641.


Practised after the Restoration.

1665-6.] "[February] 26th...... Took coach and to Windsor, to the Garter; thither sent for Dr. Childe, who came to us and carried us to S. George's chapel, and there placed us among the Knights' stalls; and hither come cushions to us, and a young singing-boy to bring us a copy of the anthem to be sung and here for our sakes had this anthem and the great service sung extraordinary, only to entertain us......It is a noble place indeed, and a good quire of voices. Great bowing by all the people, the poor Knights in par


ticularly, to the altar.”—Pepys's Memoirs, vol. 1. p. 394.76 wep 27


1685.] "In church to behave himself always very reverently, nor ever turn his back upon the altar in service-time, nor on the minister when it can be avoided; to stand at the lessons and Epistles as well as at the Gospel, and especially when a psalm is sung; to bow reverently at the name of JESUS whenever it is mentioned in any of the Church's offices; to turn towards the east when the Gloria Patri and the Creeds are rehearsing; and to make obeisance at coming into and going out of church, and at going up to and coming down from the altar, are all ancient and devout usages, and


which thousands of good people of our Church practise at this day, and amongst them, if he deserves to be reckoned amongst them, T. W.'s dear friend.”—Mich. Hewetson's Memorandums concerning the Consecration of the church of Kildare, and the Ordination of his dear friend Thomas Wilson, with some advices thereupon. Life of Bishop Wilson.


Circa 1682.] "So that all are nonconformists...that bow towards the altar, and set great candles thereon, and bow at the name of JESUS.”—The Black Nonconformist. Hickeringill's Works, vol. 11, p. 87.


"But does any man speak against their [the Spiritual Courts'] fees? or bring down a fee of a marriage from fifteen shillings to a poor five shillings; or dare speak against illegal ceremonies, bowing and ducking, and cringing to the east, to the altar, towards the lighted candles? Where is the villain? stop his mouth, gag him, pillory him, cross him, curse him, excommunicate him, gaol him, nay, mancatch him, indict him, sue him, vex him, plague the Tomtell-truth, nay, hang him if possible.”—Ibid. vol. I. p. 147.


"Bowing to the altar, a place which some men never pass by but they bow: they ought to lose their spiritual promotions for such superstition.”—Ibid. vol. II. p. 89.


Practised by the Knights of the Garter.

1730.] "The poor Knights moved from their situation in the north aisle, [of S. George's Chapel, Windsor,] going by pairs down to the western end of the aisle, and then passing up through the middle aisle, entered into the choir, and in the middle thereof they, in a joint body, made their reverences first to the altar, and turning about in a body made their obeisances towards the Sovereign's stall, and passing up to the steps near to the altar there divided themselves, and stood on each side one below the other, the juniors nearest to the rails. The Prebendaries stayed at the door of the choir until the poor Knights had thus placed themselves, and then entered by pairs, making the like double reverences, in a body together, and entered into their seats under the stalls...... While the Prebendaries

were thus entering into their seats, the officers-of-arms, according to their degrees, entered into the choir, made their double reverences in a body jointly, and passed up near to the rails...... Then the Knights companions entered into the choir......and being come a little way beyond the Sovereign's stall, made double reverences in the middle of the choir, and being come up against their respective stalls, repeated their obeisances.....His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales entered with the like reverences, and stood under his banner. ...... The Sovereign at his entry into the chapel made his reverence to the altar only....... The Sovereign being placed, Garter went into the middle of the choir, and after his double reverences, having his rod or sceptre in his hand, turned himself to the Prince of Wales, who thereupon came from under his banner into the midst of the choir, and there made his reverence to the altar and to the Sovereign in his stall, and then went up the nearest way to his stall, where he repeated the same reverences....... The two senior Knights, the Dukes of Somerset and Argyll...came out into the middle of the choir, opposite to their own stalls, and made their reverences... and being advanced to the degrees or first step towards the altar, made their reverences to the altar and to the Sovereign, and at the rails to the altar only......Divine service then began, and after the Creed, the offertory words being pronounced, 'Let your light so shine,' &c., the organ then playing, the officers of the wardrobe spread the carpet over the steps that lead to the rails of the altar...... The Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod making his obeisances, went up to the rails of the altar, and standing upon the right side, received from the Yeoman of the Wardrobe a rich carpet, which, with his assistance, he spread upon the other carpet...... The Prelate of the Order placed himself in the midst before the altar, holding a gilt basin, two Prebendaries assisting him. All the Companions standing under their banners, the Sovereign, having made his reverences towards the altar in his stall, descended from it, and in the middle of the choir made another reverence, and at the steps of the altar; and proceeding up to the rails of the altar there repeated the same.... The Sovereign being at the rails of the altar, the Usher of the Black Rod having taken assay of the offering, delivered it kneeling to the Duke of Somerset, who in like manner delivered it to the Sovereign, who, taking off his cap and kneeling, put it into the basin held by the Prelate, assisted by two Prebendaries. The

Sovereign rising, made his reverence at the rails at the bottom of the steps of the altar, and again in the middle of the choir, and ascended into his stall, and making another reverence therein (all of them towards the altar only) then sat down. All the attendants in this procession turned as the Sovereign did, made their reverences in the like manner," &c.-The Ceremonies observed at the Installation of His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland, the Earl of Chesterfield, and the Earl of Burlington, in presence of the Sovereign and Knights Companions of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, at Windsor, on Thursday, the 18th of June, 1730. Pole's History and Antiquities of Windsor Castle, &c., pp. 231, 240, 4to. 1749.


Practised at Oxford.

1795.] "I have observed this practice in College chapels in Oxford."-Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. II. p. 219. Note.


1837.] "In the cathedrals, the Dean and Canons have from time immemorial, on leaving the choir, bowed to the altar."-Letter on "Innovations attributed to Clergymen in or near Oxford," by Dr. Pusey. British Magazine, No. LXXII. p. 639.


Sanctioned by the present Bishop of London.

1842.] "Although I do not consider the Canons of 1640 to be binding upon the clergy, I see no very serious objection to the custom therein commended, as having been the ancient custom of the primitive Church, and of this also for many years in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, of doing obeisance on entering and leaving churches and chancels, not (as the canon expressly declares) 'with any intention,' &c. [as before cited, p. 58.] But that the clergy, although they are at liberty to use this custom, are not obliged to do so, even if that canon be in force, is clear from the words of the canon itself, which heartily commends but does not enjoin it......If those persons who practise these obeisances towards the Holy Table do so under the notion of a bodily presence of CHRIST in the consecrated elements, or if the people are led to suppose them to do so, then I consider the custom to be objectionable and at variance with the spirit of our reformed Church. If otherwise, the clergy who observe

it are bound to explain it to the people in the sense in which it is explained by the canon."-Charge, pp. 44, 45. 1st edit.


Sanctioned by the present Bishop of Exeter.

1843.] "Again, the bowings to the altar' may be the bowings recommended in the seventh canon of the synod of 1640, which says that, 'Whereas the church,' &c.......Now, if the bowings to the altar' enumerated among your 'grievances' be of this kind, I must decline issuing any directions to the rector which may induce him to discontinue them. I do not understand that he attempts to impose them as duties on his people. He performs them, it seems, himself, thereby exercising his christian liberty, with which I have no right nor inclination to interfere. I do not indeed practise this obeisance myself in coming in and going out of church,' but I respect the freedom of others, and I from my heart subscribe to the wise and charitable language with which the canon last cited by me concludes In the practice or omission of this rite, we desire that the rule of charity prescribed by the Apostle may be observed, which is, that they which use this rite despise not them which use it not; and that they who use it not, condemn not those who use it."—Reply to a Memorial by some of the Inhabitants of Falmouth. English + Churchman, No. 29, p. 450.

Wafer Bread at the Holy Communion.


Ordered in the first Prayer-book of Edward VI.

1548, 2 Edw. VI.] "For avoiding of all matters and occasion of dissension, it is meet that the bread prepared for the Communion be made through all this realm after one sort and fashion; that is to say, unleavened and round, as it was afore, but without all manner of print, and something more larger and thicker than it was, so that it may be aptly divided in divers pieces; and every one shall be divided in two pieces at the least, or more, by the discretion of the minister, and so distributed. And men must not think less to


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