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for men, their several for women, their several for their priests, and for the high-priest alone their several. There being in ours for local distinction between the Clergy and the rest (which yet we do not with any great strictness or curiosity observe neither) but one partition, the cause whereof at the first (as it seemeth) was, that as many as were capable of the Holy Mysteries might there assemble themselves, and no other creep amongst them: this is now made a matter so heinous, as if our religion thereby were become even plain Judaism; and as though we retained a most holy place whereinto there might not any but the high-priest alone enter, according to the custom of the Jews."-Eccl. Polity, v. 14.


1578, Bancroft Survey, 260.] "There is in every church, for the most part, a distinction of places betwixt the Clergy and the laity. We term one place the chancel, and another the body of the church: which manner of distinction doth greatly offend the tender consciences (forsooth) of the purer part of the Reformers. Insomuch as Mr. Gilby, a chief man in his time among them, doth term the quire a cage, and reckoneth that separation of the ministers from the congregation one of the hundred points of Popery, which, he affirmeth, do yet remain in the Church of England." The book from which he quotes is "A View of Antichrist, his Laws and Ceremonies in our English Church unreformed."-Circ. 1578.

Strype, Ann. II. ii. 215. Note on the above in Keble's edition of Hooker, vol. 1. p. 67, 8vo. 1836.


Rood-screen at S. Giles's-in-the-Fields.

Temp. Charles I.] "The church being finished (which is a goodly fabrick), that the inside of it might correspond with that which is without, she gave hangings of watched taffeta to cover the upper end of the chancel, and those bordered with a silk and silver fringe. Also she gave a beautiful screen of carved wood, which was placed where the former one in the old church stood."-Funeral Sermon of the Duchess of Dulley, p. 23. Some Account of the Hospital and Parish of S. Giles's-in-the-Fields, p. 201, note.


"The said church is divided into three parts: the sanctum sanctorum being one of them, is separated from the chancel by

a large screen, in the figure of a beautiful gate, in which is carved two large pillars and three large statues: on the one side is Paul with his sword; on the other, Barnabas with his book; and over them, Peter with his keys. They are all set above with winged cherubims, and beneath supported with lions. Seven or eight feet within this holy place is a raising by three steps; and from thence a long rail from one wall to the other, into which place none must enter but the priests and subdeacons. This place is covered before the altar with a fair wrought carpet; the altar doth stand close up to the wall on the east side, and a desk raised upon that with degrees of advancement [projecting steps]. This desk is overlaid with a covering of purple velvet, which hath a great gold and silk fringe round about; and on this desk is placed two great books, wrought with needle-work, in which are made the pictures of CHRIST, and the Virgin Mary with CHRIST in her arms; and these are placed on each side the desk: and on this altar a double covering, one of tapestry, and upon that a fine long lawn cloth with a very rich bone lace.* The walls are hanged round within the rail with blue silk taffeta curtains."-Petition by the Puritans to Parliament against the Rector, Dr. Heywood, 1640. Ibid. p. 201.


A Rood-screen demolished.

1634.] "He [the Bishop of Landaff] certifies that one William Newport, Rector of Langua, in Monmouthshire, hath pulled down the partition between the chancel and the church, and sold part, and disposed the rest to his own use, with some other violences, to the great profanation of that place, for which the Bishop desires leave to bring him into the High Commission."-Archbishop Laud's Annual Accounts of his Province to the King. Archbishop Laud's Troubles, &c., p. 533.


Enquiry about Rood-screens, by Bishop Montague.

1638.] "Is your chancel divided from the nave or body of your church with a partition of stone, boards, wainscot, grates, or other

* Bone lace was netting of very elaborate and delicate work, made of variouslycoloured silks, and gold and silver twist, as well as of white thread or black silk. See Strickland's Queens of England, vol. vi. p. 444, note.-EDD.

wise? Wherein is there a decent strong door to open and shut (as occasion serveth), with lock and key, to keep out boys, girls, or rreverent men and women? And are dogs kept from coming to profane the LORD's Table ?"-Bishop Montague's Visitation Articles, Camb. Edit. p. 43.


Rood-screens defended by Bishop Beveridge.

1681.] "The Sacrament of the LORD's Supper being the highest mystery in all our religion, as representing the death of the Son of GOD to us, hence that place where this Sacrament is administered was always made and reputed the highest place in the church; and therefore, also, it was wont to be separated from the rest of the church by a screen or partition of net-work, in Latin cancelli, and that so generally, that from thence the place itself is called the Chancel. That this was anciently observed in the building of all considerable churches within a few centuries after the Apostles themselves, even in the days of Constantine the Great, as well as in all ages since, I could easily demonstrate from the records of those times. But having purposely waived antiquity hitherto, I am loth to trouble you with it now: but I mention it at present only because some perhaps may wonder why this should be observed in our church [S. Peter's, Cornhill, London] rather than in all the other churches which have lately been built in this city; whereas they should rather wonder why it was not observed in all others as well as this. For, besides our obligations to conform, as much as may be, to the practice of the universal Church, and to avoid novelty and singularity in all things relating to the worship of GOD, it cannot easily be imagined that the Catholick Church, in all ages and places, for thirteen or fourteen hundred years together, should observe such a custom as this, except there were great reasons for it.

"What they were it is not necessary for us to enquire now. It may be sufficient to observe at present, that the chancel in our Christian churches was always looked upon as answerable to the Holy of Holies in the Temple; which, you know, was separated from the sanctuary or body of the Temple by the command of GOD Himself; and that this place being appropriated to the Sacrament of the LORD's Supper, it ought to be contrived as may be most convenient for those who are to partake of that blessed ordinance.

But it must

needs be more convenient for those who are to enjoy communion with CHRIST, and in Him with one another, in this holy Sacrament, to meet together as one body, in one place separated for that purpose, than to be dispersed as otherwise they would be, some in one and some in another part of the church: or in short it is much better for the place to be separate from the people."-Sermon preached at the Opening of S. Peter's, Cornhill.* Collected Works, p. 24.

Litany to be sung or said in the midst of the Church.


1547, 1 Edw. VI.] "Immediately before High Mass the priests with other of the quire shall kneel in the midst of the church, and sing or say plainly and distinctly the Litany which is set forth in English, with all the suffrages following."—Injunctions of Edward VI.


1548, 2 Edw. VI.] "Item. Whether they have the processionbook in English, and have said or sung the said Litany in any other place but upon their knees in the midst of their church."-Archbishop Cranmer's Visitation Articles.


1559, 1 Eliz.] "Immediately before the time of communion of the Sacrament, the priests with other of the quire shall kneel in the midst of the church, and sing or say plainly and distinctly the Litany which is set forth in English......And in cathedral or collegiate churches the same shall be done in such places, and in such sort, as our Commissioners in their visitation shall appoint."—Injunctions of Elizabeth.


"The Litany to be said or sung in the midst of the church. (Injunct. Eliz.) The priest goeth from out of his seat into the

*This church, built by Wren, and that of All-hallows-the-Great, Thamesstreet, have real and bona fide chancel-screens; and we know but one of the churches built at that period, S. Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe, which is destitute of a low partition, answering the same purpose. See Ecclesiologist, Vol. 11. p. 140.-EDD.

body of the church, and (at a low desk before the chancel-door called the fald-stool*) kneels, and says or sings the Litany. the prophet Joel, speaking of a place between the porch and the altar, where the priests and the prophets were commanded to weep, and to say, 'Spare thy people, O LORD,' &c., at the time of a fast."Bishop Andrewes' Notes in Nicholls' Commentary, p. 23.


"Our Litany......is enjoined, by the Royal Injunctions still in force, to be said or sung in the midst of the church, at a low desk † before the chancel-door, anciently called the falled stool."-Wheatly's Commentary on the Common Prayer, p. 164.

Position of the Officiating Minister at Morning and Evening Prayer.


"The order where morning and even prayer shall be used and said. In the first Book of Edward VI. the priest was appointed to say the morning and even prayer in the choir, the people remaining in the church, as aforetime it had been accustomed: for the choir was built for the priests, and for that purpose that Divine prayer might be celebrated and performed by them in it. Against this order there was exception taken by Bucer......alledging, That it was an antichristian practice for the choir to be severed from the rest of the church, and for the prayers there only to be said, which pertaineth to the people as well as to the Clergy: That the separation of the choir from the body of the church served for nothing else but to get the Clergy some respect above the laity, as if they were nearer to GOD than laymen are: That a pernicious superstition was thereby maintained, as if priests alone were able to procure GOD's favour, by reading and reciting a few prayers: That in the ancient times of the Church, their temples were built in a round form, and not in a long figure, as ours are; and that the place for

This is an incorrect use of the word; but is also found in the Coronation service. The faldstool is properly a folding seat for ecclesiastical personages.-EDD. + See the frontispiece to Sparrow's Rationale of the Common Prayer. Edit. 1668. -EDD.

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