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Northumberland, Westmoreland, Shrewsbury, Worcef- CHA P.
ter, Huntingdon, and Warwic. All the proceedings of
the English commiffioners were read to them: The evi-
dences produced by Murray were perufed: A great num-
ber of letters, written by Mary to Elizabeth, were laid
before them, and the hand-writing compared with that of
the letters delivered in by the regent: The refusal of the
queen of Scots' commiffioners to make any reply, was
related: And on the whole, Elizabeth told them, that,
as she had, at first, thought it improper, that Mary,
after fuch horrid crimes were imputed to her, should be
admitted to her prefence, before she had, in fome mea-
fure, juftified herself from the charge; fo now, when
her guilt was confirmed by fo many plausible evidences,
and all anfwer re
the muft, for her part, perfevere
more steadily in that refolution C. Elizabeth next called
in the queen of Scots' commiffioners, and after obferv-
ing, that she deemed it much more decent for their mis-
trefs to continue the conferences, than to require the li-
berty of justifying herself in person, she told them, that
Mary might either fend her reply by a person whom she
trusted, or deliver it herself to fome English nobleman,
whom Elizabeth should appoint to wait upon her: But
as to her refolution of making no reply at all, she must
regard it as the strongest confeffion of guilt; nor could
they ever be deemed her friends, who advised her to that
method of proceeding D. These topics fhe enforced still
more strongly in a letter, which fhe wrote to Mary her-
felf E.

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THE queen of Scots had no other fubterfuge from these preffing remonftrances than still to demand a personal interview with Elizabeth: A conceffion which, fhe was fenfible, could never be granted F; becaufe Elizabeth knew, that this expedient could decide nothing; because it brought matters to extremity, which that princefs defired to avoid; and because it had been refused from the beginning, even before the commencement of the conferences. In order to keep herself better in countenance, Mary thought of another device. Even after the conferences

C Anderson, vol. iv. part 2. p. 170, &c.
DAnderfon, vol. iv. part 2. p. 179, &c.
E Anderson, vol. iv. part 2. p. 183.
F Cabbala, p. 157.

Goodall, vol. ii. p. 254.
Goodall, vol. ii.
P. 268.
Goodall, vol. ii. p. 269.



CHA P. ferences were broke off, fhe ordered her commiffioners to accuse the earl of Murray, and his affociates, as the murderers of the king G: But this accufation, coming fo late, being extorted merely by a complaint of Murray's, and being unfupported by any proof, could only be regarded as an angry retaliation upon her enemy H. She alfo defired to have copies of the papers given in by the regent; but as she still perfifted in her refolution to make no reply before the English commiffioners, this demand was finally refused her 1.

As Mary had thus put an end to the conferences, the regent expreffed great impatience to return into Scotland; and he complained, that his enemies had taken advantage of his absence, and had thrown the whole government into confufion. Elizabeth, therefore, difmiffed him; and granted him a loan of five thousand pounds, to bear the charges of his journey K. During the conferences at York, the duke of Chatelrault arrived at London, in paffing from France; and as the queen knew, that he was engaged in Mary's party, and had very plaufible pretenfions to the regency of the king of Scots, the thought proper to detain him till after Murray's departure. But notwithstanding these marks of favour, and some other affistance which the fecretly gave this latter nobleman L, she still declined acknowledging the young king, or treating with Murray as regent of Scotland.

ORDERS were given for removing the queen of Scots from Bolton, a place furrounded with catholics, to Tutbury in the county of Stafford, where she was put under the custody of the earl of Shrewsbury. Elizabeth entertained hopes, that this princefs, difcouraged by her misfortunes, and confounded by the late tranfactions, would be glad to fecure a fafe retreat from all the tempests, with which fhe had been agitated; and the promised to bury every thing in oblivion, provided Mary would agree, either to refign voluntarily her crown, or to affociate her fon with her in the government; and the administration to remain, during his minority, in the


G Goodall, vol. ii. p. 280. H See note at the end of the volume. I Goodall, vol. ii. p. 253, 283, 289, 310, 311. Haynes, vol. i. p. 492. See note at the end of the volume. Rymer, tom. xv. p. 677. L MS. in the Advocates' library. A. 3, 29. p. 128, 129, 130. from Cott. Lib. Cal.


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hands of the earl of Murray M. But that high-fpirited C H A P. princess refused all treaty upon fuch terms, and declared that her last words fhould be thofe of a queen of Scotland. Befides many other reasons, she said, which fixed her in that refolution, fhe knew, that if, in the present emergence, she made fuch conceffions, her fubmiffion would be univerfally deemed an acknowledgment of guilt, and would ratify all the calumnies of her ene mies N.

MARY ftill infifted upon this alternative; either that Elizabeth fhould affift her in recovering her authority, or fhould give her liberty to retire into France, and make trial of the friendship of other princes: And as she af ferted, that she had come voluntarily into England, invited by many former profeffions of amity, the thought, that one or other of these requests could not, without the most extreme injustice, be refused her. But Elizabeth, sensible of the danger which attended both these proposals, was fecretly refolved to detain her still a captive; and as her retreat into England had been little voluntary, her claim upon the queen's generofity appeared much less urgent than fhe was willing to pretend. Neceffity, it was thought, would to the prudent justify her detention: Her paft mifconduct would apologize for it to the equitable: And though it was foreseen, that compaffion for her fituation, joined to her intrigues and infinuating behaviour, would, while she remained in England, excite the zeal of her friends, especially of the catholics, these inconveniencies were deemed much inferior to those attending any other expedient. Elizabeth trufted also to her own addrefs, for eluding all those difficulties: She proposed to avoid breaking abfolutely with the queen of Scots, to keep her always in hopes of an accommodation, to negociate perpetually with her, and ftill to throw the blame of not coming to any conclufion, either on unforeseen accidents, or on the obstinacy and perverfeness of others.

WE come now to mention fome English affairs, which we left behind us, that we might not interrupt our narration of the events in Scotland, which form fo material a part of the prefent reign. The term, fixed by the treaty of Cateau-Cambrefis for the reftitution of Calais,


M Goodall, vol. ii. p. 295.

N Ibid. p. 301."


CHA P. expired in 1567; and Elizabeth, after making her deXL. mand at the gates of that city, fent Sir Thomas Smith to Paris; and that minifter, in conjunction with Sir Henry Norris, her ordinary ambassador, enforced her pretenfions. Conferences were held on that head, without coming to any conclufion. The chancellor, De L'Hofpital, told the English ambassadors, that, though France by an article of the treaty was obliged to restore Calais on the expiration of eight years, there was another article of the fame treaty, which now deprived Elizabeth of every right, that could accrue to her by that engagement: That it was agreed, if the English should, during that interval, commit hoftilities upon France, they should inftantly forfeit all claims to Calais; and the taking poffeffion of Havre and Dieppe, with whatever pretences that meafure might be covered, was a plain violation of the peace between the nations: That though these places were not entered by force, but put into Elizabeth's hands by the governors, these governors were rebels; and a correlpondence with fuch traitors was the most flagrant injury, which could be committed on any fovereign: That in the treaty, which enfued upon the expulfion of the Englifh from Normandy, the French minifters had abfolutely refused to make any mention of Calais, and had thereby declared their intention to take advantage of the title, which had accrued to the crown of France: And that though a general clause had been inferted, implying a reservation of all claims, this conceffion could not avail the English, who at that time poffeffed no just claim to Calais, and had previously forfeited all pretenfions to that fortress. The queen was no wife furprized at hearing these allegations; and as she knew, that the French court intended not from the first to make reftitution, much less, after they could justify their refusal by such plausible reafons, the thought it better for the prefent to fubmit to the lofs, than to pursue a doubtful title by a war both dangerous and expenfive, as well as unseasonable P.

ELIZABETH entered anew into negociations for ef poufing the archduke Charles; and fhe feems, at this time, to have no great motive of policy, which might


o Haynes, p. 587. P Camden, p. 406.

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induce her to make this fallacious offer: But as she was C H A P.
very rigourous in the terms infifted on, and refused the
archduke all power and title, and even the exercise of
his religion in England, the treaty came to nothing; and
that prince, despairing of fuccefs in his addreffes, mar-
ried the daughter of Albert, duke of Bavaria &


Camden, p. 407, 408.


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