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сн А Р. XLII. Affairs of Scotland Spanish affairs-Sir Francis

Drake -A parliament- -Negociations of marriage with the duke of Anjou ---- Affairs of Scotland - Letter of queen Mary to Elizabeth

-Conspiracies in England A parliament - The ecclefiaftical commission Affairs of the Low Countries -Hostilities with Spain.


HE greatest and most absolute security, which Eli-CHAP. zabeth

. XLII. exempted her trom vigilance and attention, but the scene began now to be more overcast, and dangers 1580. gradually inultiplied on her from more than one quarter.

The earl of Morton had hitherto retained Scotland Affairs of in strict alliance with the queen, and had also restored Scotland. domestic tranquillity to that kingdom : But it was not to be expected, that the factitious and legal authority of a regent would long maintain itself in a country unacquainted with law and order; where even the natural dominion of hereditary princes so often met with oppofition and controul. The nobility began anew to break into fa&tions : The people were disgusted with some in. stances of Morton's avarice: And the clergy, who complained of farther encroachments on their narrow revenue, joined and encrealed the discontent of the other orders. The regent was sensible of his dangerous situa. tion; and having dropped some peevish expressions, as if he were willing or desirous to resign the government, the nobleinen of the opposite party, favourites of the young king, laid hold of this concession, and required that demission, which he seemed fo frankly to offer them. James was at this time but eleven years of age; yet Morton, having secured himself, as he imagined, by a general pardon, resigned bis authority into the hands of the king, who pretended to conduct, in his own name, the administration of the kingdom. The regent retired from the government, and seemed to employ himself entirely in the care of his domestic affairs; but either tired with this tranquillity, which appeared insipid after


CHA P. the agitations of ambition, or thinking it time to throw XLII. off dissimulation, he returned again to court; acquired w an ascendant in the council ; and though he resumed not 1580. the title of regent, governed with the same authority as before. The

opposite party, after holding separate conventions, took to arms, on preterice of delivering their prince from captivity, and restoring him to a free exera cise of his government : queen Elizabeth interposed by her ambassador, sir Robert Bowes, and mediated an agreement between the factions : Morton kept possession of the government; but his enemies were numerous and vigilant, and his authority seemed to become every day more precarious.

The count d'Aubigney, of the house of Lenox, cousin-german to the king's father, had been born and educated in France; and being a young man of good address and a sweet disposition,

he appeared to the duke of Guise a proper instrument for detaching James from the English interest, and connecting him with his mother and her relations. He no sooner appeared at Stirling, where James resided, than he acquired the affections of the young monarch; and joining his interests with James Stuart of the house of Ochiltree, a man of proHigate manners, who had acquired the king's favour, he employed himself, under the appearance of play and amusement, in instilling into the tender mind of the prince new sentiments of politics and government. He repesented to him the injustice which had been done Mary in her deposition, and made him entertain thoughts, either of resigning the crown into her hands, or of associating her with him in the administration Elizabeth, alarmed with the danger, which might ensue from the prevalence of this interest in Scotland, fent anew fir Robert Bowes to Stirling; and accusing d'Aubigney, now created earl of Lenox, of an attachment to the French, warned James against entertaining such suspicious and dangerous conneětions H. The king excused himself, by Alexander Hume his ambassador; and Lenox, finding that the queen had openly declared against him, was farther confirmed in his intention of overturning the English interest, and particularly of



G Digges, p. 412, 428. Melvil, p. 130.

H Spots ruining Morton, who was regarded as the head of it. CHAP. That nobleman was arrested in council, accused as an XLII. accomplice in the late king's murder, committed to prison, brought to trial, and condemned to suffer as a 1580. traitor. He confessed, that Bothwell had communicated to him the design, had pleaded Mary's consent, and had desired his concurrence; but he denied, that he had ever expressed any approbation of that crime, and in excuse for his concealing it, he alledged the danger of revealing the secret, either to Henry, who had no resolution nor conítancy, or to Mary, who appeared to be an accomplice in the murder i Sir Thomas Randolph was sent by the queen to intercede in favour of Morton; and that ambassador, not content with discharging this duty of his function, engaged, by his persuasion, the earls of Argyle, Montrose, Angus, Mar, and Glencarne, to enter into a confederacy for protecting, even by force of arms, the life of the prisoner. The more to overawe that nobleman's enemies, Elizabeth ordered forces to be assembled on the borders of England; but this expedient served only to halten his sentence and execution K, Morton died with that constancy and resolution, which had attended him through all the various events of his life; and left a reputation, which was less disputed with regard to ability than probity and virtue. But this conclusion of the scene happened not till the subsequent year.

wood, p. 309.

ELIZABETH was, during this period, extremely anx- Sparish ious on account of every revolution in Scotland; both affairs. because that country alone, not being separated from England by fea, and bordering on all the catholic and malcontent countries, afforded her enemies a safe and easy method of attacking her ; and because she was senfible, that Mary, thinking herself abandoned by the French monarch, had been engaged by the Guises to have recourse to the powerful protection of Philip, who, tho’ he had not yet come to an open rupture with the queen, was every day, both by the injuries which he committed and suffered, more exasperated against her. That he might retaliate for the assistance, which she gave to his rebels in the Low Countries, he had sent, under


1 Spotswood, p. 314. Crawford, p. 333. Moyse's Memoirs, p. 54.


p. 312.



CHA P. the name of the pope, a body of seven hundred SpaXLII. niards and Italians into Ireland ; where the inhabitants,

always turbulent, and discontented with the English government, were now more alienated by religious prejudices, and were ready to join every invader. The Spanish general, San Josepho, built a fort in Kerry; and being there besieged by the earl of Ormond, president of Munster, who was soon after joined by lord Gray, the deputy, he made a weak and cowardly defence. After some assaults, feebly suitained, he surrendered at discretion ; and Gray, who was attended with a small forie, finding himself embarrassed with so many prisoners, put all the Spaniards and Italians to the sword without mercy, and hanged about fifteen hundred Irish : A cruelty which

gave great displeasure to Elizabeth M. Sir Fran- When the English ambassador made complaints of cis Drake. this invasion, he was answered by like complaints of the

pyracies committed by Francis Drake, a bold seaman, who had assaulted the Spaniards in the place where they deemed themselves most secure, in the new world. This man, sprung from mean parents in the county of Devon, having acquired considerable riches by depredations made in the isthmus of Panama, and having there got a fight of the Pacific Ocean, was so stimulated by ambition and avarice, that he scrupled not to employ his whole fortune in a new adventure through those feas, so much unknown at that time to all the European nations N. By means of fir Christopher Hatton, then vice chamberlain, a great favourite of the queen's, he obtained her consent and approbation ; and he let sail from Plymouth in 1577, with four ships and a pinnace, on board of which were 164 able failors o. He paffed into the South. Seas by the Straits of Magellan, and attacking the Spaniards, who expected no enemy in these quarters, he took many rich prizes, and prepared to return with the booty, which he had acquired. Apprehensive of being intercept: ed by the enemy, if he took the same way homewards, by which he had reached the Pacific Ocean, he attempted to find a passage by the north of California ; and failing in that enterprize, he set fail for the East Indies, and re


I Digges, p. 359, 370.

M Camden, p. 475. Cox's History of Ireland, p. 368. N Camden, p. 478. Stowe, p. 689. • Camden, p. 478. Hakluye's Voyages, vol. iii. p. 730, 748. Purchas's Pilgrim, vol. i. p. 46.

turned safely this year by the Cape of Good Hope. He CHAP. was the first Englishman who failed round the globe; and XLII. the first commander in chief: for Magellan, whose ship executed the same adventure, died in his paffage. His

His 1981. name became celebrated on account of so bold and fortunate an attempt; but many, apprehending the resentment of the Spaniards, endeavoured to persuade the queen, that it would be more prudent to disown the enterprize, to punish Drake, and to restore the treasure. But Elizabeth, who admired valour, and who was allured by the prospect of sharing in the booty, determined to countenance that gallant sailor : She conferred on him the honour of knighthood, and accepted of a banquet from him at Deptford, on board the ship, which had atchieved so memorable a voyage. When Philip's ambassador, Mendoza, exclaimed against Drake's pyracies, she told him, that the Spaniards, by arrogating a right to the whole new world, and excluding thence all other European nations, who would fail thither, even with a view of exercising the most lawful commerce, naturally tempted others to make a violent irruption into these countries P. To pacify, however, the Spanish monarch, the caused part of the booty to be restored to Pedro Sebura, a Spaniard, who pretended to be agent for the merchants, whom Drake had spoiled. Having learned afterwards, that Philip had seized the money, and had employed part of it against herself in Ireland, part of it in the pay of the prince of Parma's troops, The determined to make no more restitutions.

There was another cause, which induced the queen to take this resolution : She was in such want of money, that she was obliged to assemble a parliament, a measure, which, Jan. 16. as she herself openly declared, she never embraced, ex- A parlicept when constrained by the necessity of her affairs. The amunt. parliament, besides granting her a supply of one subsidy and two fifteenths, enacted some statutes for the security of her government, chiefly against the attempts of the catholics. Whoever, in any way, reconciled anyone to the church of Rome, or was himself reconciled, was declared to be guilty of treason ; to say mass was subjected to the penalty of a year's imprisonment, and a fine of two hundred marks; the being present was punishable by a year's imprisonment and a fine of an hundred marks: A fine of twenty pounds a month was imposed on every one

who P Camden, p. 480.

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