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in feizing the king's perfon, and reftraining him from his CHAP liberty. Some of them accepted of the terms: The XLII. greater number, particularly Angus, Hamilton, Mar, Glamis, left the country; and took fhelter in Ireland or 1583. England, where they were protected by Elizabeth. The earl of Arran was recalled to court; and the malcontents, who could not brook the authority of Lenox, a man of virtue and moderation, found, that, by their refiftance, they had thrown all power into the hands of a perfon, whose councils were as violent as his manners were profligate V.

ELIZABETH wrote a letter to James; in which she quoted a moral fentence from Ifocrates, and indirectly reproached him with inconftancy, and a breach of his engagements. James, in his reply; juftified his measures; and retaliated, by turning two paffages of Ifocrates against her. She next fent Walfingham in an embaffy to him; and her chief purpofe in employing that aged minister in an errand, where fo little bufinefs was to be tranfacted, was to learn, from a man of fo much penetration and experience, the real character of James. This young prince poffeffed good parts, though not accompanied with that vigour and industry which his ftation required; and as he excelled in general discourse and converfation, Walfingham entertained a higher idea of his talents than he was afterwards found, when real business was tranfacted, to have fully merited. The account, which he gave his mistrefs, induced her to treat James thenceforth with fome more regard, than she had hitherto been inclined to pay him.

THE king of Scots, perfevering in his prefent views, 1584. fummoned a parliament; where it was enacted, that no clergyman should prefume, in his fermons, to utter falfe, untrue, or fcandalous fayings against the king, the council, or the public meafures, or to meddle, in an improper manner, with the affairs of his majesty and the ftates. The clergy, finding that the pulpit would be no longer a fanctuary for them, were extremely offended: They faid, that the king was become popifh in his heart; and they gave their adverfaries the epithets of grofs liber


U Spotswood, p. 325, 326, & feq. X Melvil, p. 140, 141. Strype, vol. iii. p. 165. * Melvil, p. 148. Jebb, vol. ii. p. 536. Ꮓ Spotfwood, p. 333.


CHA P. tines, belly gods, and infamous perfons A. The violent XLII. conduct of Arran foon brought over the popularity to their fide. The earl of Gowry, though pardoned for the 1583. late attempt, was committed to prifon, was tried on some new accufations, condemned, and executed. Many innocent persons suffered from the tyranny of this favourite; and the banished lords, being affifted by Elizabeth, now found the time favourable for the recovery of their eftates and authority. After they had been foiled in one attempt upon Stirling, they prevailed in another; and being admitted to the king's presence, were pardoned, and reftored to his favour.

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ARRAN was degraded from authority; deprived of that estate and title which he had ufurped; and the whole country seemed to be composed to tranquillity. Elizabeth, after oppofing, during some time, the credit of this favourite, had found it more expedient, before his fall, to compound all differences with him, by means of Davison, a minister whom the fent to Scotland: But having more confidence in the lords, whom she had helped to restore, she was pleased with this alteration of affairs; and maintained a good correspondence with the new court and minister of James.

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Confpira- THESE revolutions in Scotland would have been regarded as of small importance to the repofe and fecurity England. of Elizabeth, had her own fubjects been entirely united, and had not the zeal of the catholics, excited by conftraint more properly than perfecution, daily threatened her with fome dangerous infurrections. The vigilance of the ministers, particularly of Burleigh and Walfingham, was raised in proportion to the activity of the malcontents; and many arts, which had been blameable in a more peaceable government, were employed, in detecting confpiracies, and even difcovering the fecret inclinations of men. Counterfeit letters were written in the name of the queen of Scots, or of the English exiles, and privately conveyed to the houses of the catholics: Spies were hired to observe the actions and discourse of fufpected perfons: Informers were countenanced: And though the fagacity of these two great minifters helped them to distinguish the true from the falfe intelligence, many calumnies were, no doubt, hearkened to, and all the fubjects, particularly the catholics,kept in the utmoft anxiety and inquietude.


A Spotswood, p. 334.

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Henry Piercy, earl of Northumberland, brother to the CHA P. earl beheaded fome years before, and Philip Howard, earl of Arundel, fon of the unfortunate duke of Norfolk, fell under fufpicion; and the latter was, by order of the council, confined to his own houfe. Francis Throgmorton, a private gentleman, was committed to cuftody, on account of a letter which he had written to the queen of Scots, and which was intercepted. Lord Paget and Charles Arundel, who had been engaged with him in treasonable defigns, immediately withdrew beyond fea. Throgmorton confeffed, that a plan for an invafion and infurrection had been laid; and though, on his trial, he was defirous of retracting this confeffion, and imputing it to the fear of torture, he was found guilty and executed. Mendoza, the Spanish ambaffador, having promoted this confpiracy, was ordered to depart the kingdom; and Wade was fent into Spain, to execute his difmiffion, and to defire the king to fend another ambaffador in his place: But Philip would not fo much as admit the English ambaffador to his prefence. Creighton, a Scotch Jefuit, coming over on board a veffel which was feized, tore fome papers, with an intention of throwing them into the fea; but the wind blowing them back upon the fhip, they were pieced together, and difcovered fome dangerous fecrets B.


MANY of thefe confpiracies were, with great appearance of reason, imputed to the intrigues of the queen of Scots; and as her name was employed in all of them, the council thought, that they could not ufe too many precautions against the danger of her claims, and the restless activity. of her temper. She was removed from under the care of the earl of Shrewsbury, who, though vigilant and faithful in truft, had alfo been indulgent to his prifoner, particularly with regard to air and exercife: And the was committed to the cuftody of Sir Amias Paulet and Sir Drue Drury; men of honour, but inflexible and rigid in their care and attention. An affociation was fet on foot by the earl of Leicester and other courtiers; and as Elizabeth was beloved by the whole nation, except the more zealous Catholics, men of all ranks willingly flocked to the fubfcription of it. The purport of this affociation was to defend the queen, to revenge her death or any injury committed against her, and to exclude from the VOL. V.



B Camden, p. 499.

Strype, vol. iii. p. 246.

CHAP. throne all claimants, whatever title they might poffefs, by XLII. whofe fuggeftion, or for whofe behoof, any violence fhould be offered to her majefty D. The queen of Scots 1584. was fenfible, that this affociation was levelled against her; and to remove all fufpicion from herself, fhe alfo defired leave to fubfcribe it.

23d Nov.


ELIZABETH, that she might the more discourage malA parlia- contents, by fhewing them the concurrence of the nation in her favour, fummoned a new parliament; and she met with that dutiful attachment, which the expected. The affociation. was confirmed by parliament; and a clause. was added, by which the queen was empowered to name commiffioners for the trial of any pretender to the crown, who should attempt or imagine any invafion, infurrection, or affaffination against her: Upon condemnation, pronounced by these commiffioners, the guilty person was excluded from all claim to the fucceffion, and was farther punishable, as her majesty should direct. And for greater fecurity, a council of regency, in cafe of the queen's violent death, was appointed to govern the kingdom, to fettle the fucceffion, and to take vengeance for that act of treason E.

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A SEVERE law was alfo enacted against Jesuits and popish priests: That they fhould depart the kingdom within forty days; that those who should remain beyond that time, or fhould afterwards return, fhould be guilty of treafon; that those who harboured or relieved them fhould be guilty of felony; that those who were educated in feminaries, if they returned not in fix months after notice given, and submitted not themselves to the queen, before a bishop or two juftices, fhould be guilty of treason : And that if any, fo fubmitting themselves, fhould, within ten years, approach the queen's court, or come within ten miles of it, their submission should be void F. By this law, the exercise of the catholic religion, which had formerly been prohibited under lighter penalties, and which was, in many inftances, connived at, was totally suppreffed. In the fubfequent part of the queen's reign, the law was fometimes executed, by the capital punishment of priests; and though the partizans of that princess afferted, that they were punished for their treason, not their


D State Trials, vol. i. p. 122, 123.
F Ibid. cap. 2.


27 Eliz. cap. I

religion, the apology muft only be understood in this CH A P· fenfe, that the law was enacted on account of the treafon- XLII. able views and attempts of the fect, not that every individual, who fuffered the penalty of the law, was convicted 1584. of treason. The catholics, therefore, might now with juftice complain of a violent perfecution; which, we may fafely affirm, in fpite of the rigid and bigotted maxims of that age, not to be the best method of converting them, or of reconciling them to the established government and religion.

THE parliament, befides arming the queen with these powers, granted her a supply of one fubfidy and two fifteenths. The only circumftance, in which their proceedings were disagreeable to her, was an application, made by the commons, for a farther reformation in ecclefiaftical matters. Yet even in this attempt, which affected her, as well as them, in a delicate point, they difcovered how much they were overawed by her authority. The majority of the house was puritans, or inclined to that sect H but the fevere reprimands, which they had already, in former feffions, met with from the throne, deterred them from introducing any bill concerning religion; a proceeding which would have been interpreted as an incroachment on the prerogative: They were content to proceed by way of humble petition, and that not addreffed to her majefty, which would have given offence, but to the house of lords, or rather the bishops, who had a feat in that house, and from whom alone they were willing to receive all advances towards reformation: A ftrange departure from what we now apprehend to be the dignity of the commons !

THE Commons defired, in their humble petition, that no bishop should exercife his function of ordination but P 2 with

G Some even of those who defend the queen's measures, allow that in ten years fifty priests were executed, and fifty-five banished. Camden, p. 649.

Befides the petition after-mentioned, another proof of the prevalency of the puritans among the commons was their paffing a bill for the reverent obfervance of Sunday, which they termed the Sabbath, and the depriving the people of thofe amusements, which they were accustomed to take on that day. D'Ewes, p. 335. It was a strong symptom of a contrary spirit in the upper houfe, that they propofed to add Wednesday to the faft days, and to prohibit entirely the eating of flesh on that day. D'Ewes, p. 373. 1 D'Ewes, p. 357

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