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feditious fermons A: Nor could that prelate save himself C HAP. by any expedient from this terrible sentence, but by re

XLII. nouncing all pretensions to ecclesiastical authority. One Gibson said in the pulpit, that captain James Stuart. 1586, (meaning the late earl of Arran) and his wife, Jezabel, had been deemed the chief persecutors of the church; but it was now seen, that the king himself was the great offender : And for this crime the preacher denounced against him the curse which fell on Jeroboam, that he should die childless, and be the last of his race B.

The secretary, perceiving the king so much molested with ecclesiastical affairs, and with the refractory disposition of the clergy, advised him to leave them to their own courses : For that in a Mort time they would become so intolerable, that the people would rise against them, and chace them out of the country. " True,” replied the king: “ If I purposed to undo the church and religion,

your counsel were good: But my intention is to main“ tain both; therefore cannot I suffer the clergy to fol“ low such a conduct as will, in the end, bring religion “ into contempt and derifion"

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Zeal of the catholics-Babington's conspiracy-Mary

afjents to the conspiracy.---The conspirator's seized and
executed -Resolution to try the queen of Scots
The commissioners prevail on her to submit to the trial.
-The irial Sentence against Mary-Interpofi-
tion of king James- -Reasons for the execution of

The execution-Mary's charafler The queen's affected forrow- Drake destroys the Spaniso fleet at Cadiz

-Philip projects the invasion of England-
The invincible Armada- Preparations in England.
The Armada arrives in the Channel.-DefeatedA
parliament- -Expedition against Portugal Affairs of

CHAP. THE dangers which arose from the character, prinXLIII. ciples, and pretensions of the queen of Scots, had

engaged, very early, Elizabeth to confult, in her treat1585. ment of that unfortunate princess, the di&tates of jealousy

and politics, rather than of friendship or generosity: Refentment of this usage. had pushed Mary into enterprizes, which had nearly threatened the repose and authority of Elizabeth: The rigour and restraint, thence redoubled upon the captive queen P, still impelled her to attempt greater extremities; and while her impatience of confinement, her revenge , and her high spirit concurred with religious zeal, and the suggestions of desperate bigots, the was at last engaged in designs which afforded her enemies, who watched the opportunity, a pretence or reason for

effecting her final ruin. Zeal of the The English seminary at Rheims had wrought themcatholics. felves up to a high pitch of rage and animosity against the

queen. The recent persecutions, from which they had escaped; the new rigours which they knew awaited them, in the course of their missions; the liberty which, for the present, they enjoyed, of declaiming against that princess; and the contagion of that religious fury, which every where surrounded them in France: All these causes had obliterated with them every maxim of common sense, and every principle of morals or humanity. Intoxicated

with Digges, p. 139. Haynes, p. 607. E See note at the end of the volume.



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with admiration of the omnipotence and infallibility of the CHAP.
pope, they revered his bull, by which he excommuni. XLIII.
cated and deposed the queen, and some of them had
gone to that height of extravagance, as, to affert, that 1586.
that performance had been immediately dictated by the
Holy Ghost. The assassination of heretical fovereigns,
and of that princess in particular, was represented, as the
most meritorious of all enterprizes ; and they taught,
that; whoever perished in such pious attempts, enjoyed
without dispute the glorious and never-fading crown of
martyrdom. By such doctrines, they instigated. John
Savage, a man of desperate courage, who had terved
fome years in the Low Countries, under the prince of
Parma, to attempt the life of Elizabeth ; and this affaflin,
having made a vow to persevere in his design, was sent
over to England, and recommended to the confidence of
the more zealous catholics.

ABOUT the fame time, John Ballard, a priest of that
seminary, had returned to Paris from his mission in Eng-
land and Scotland ; and as he had observed a spirit of
mutiny and rebellion to be very prevalent among the
catholic devotees in these countries, he had founded on
that disposition the project of dethroning Elizabeth, and
of restoring by force of arms the exercise of the antient
religion in England F. The situation of affairs abroad
seemed favourable to this enterprize: The pope, the
Spaniard, the duke of Guise, concurring in interests,
had formed a resolution to make some attempt upon the
queen : And Mendoza, the Spanish ambasador at Paris,
strongly encouraged Ballard to hope for succours from
these princes. Charles Paget alone, a zealous.catholic
and a devoted partizan of the queen of Scots, being well
acquainted with the prudence, vigour, and general popu-
larity of Elizabeth, always maintained, that, so long as
that princess was allowed to live, it was in vain to expect
any success from an enterprize upon England. Ballard,
persuaded of this truth, faw more clearly the necessity of
executing the design, formed at Rheims : He came over
to England in the disguise of a soldier, and assumed the
name of captain Forrescue : And, he bent his endeavours
to effectuate at once the project of an assassination, an in-
furrection, and an invasion.


F Murden's Statę papeis, P.517.

G Camden, p. 515.

ran's cono

C H A P. The first person, to whom he addressed himself, was XLII. Anthony Babington of Dethic in the county of Derby.

This young gentleman was of a good family, poffeffed a 1586. plentiful fortune, had discovered an excellent capacity, Babing and was accomplished in literature beyond most of his Spiracy

years or station. Being zealously devoted to the catholic communion, he had secretly made a journey to Paris some time before ; and had fallen into intimacy with Thomas Morgan, a bigotted fugitive from England, and with the bishop of Glasgow, Mary's ambassador at the court of France. By continually extolling the amiable accomplishments and heroical virtues of that princess, they impelled the sanguine and unguarded mind of young Babington to make some attempt for her service; and they employed every principle of ambition, gallantry, and religious zeal, to give him a contempt of those dangers, which attended any enterprize against the vigilant government of Elizabeth. Finding hien well disposed for their purpose, they sent him back to England, and secretly, unknown to himself, recommended him to the queen of Scots, as a person worth engaging in her 'service. She wrote him a letter, full of friendship and confidence ; and Babington, aident in his temper and zealous in his principles, thought, that these advances now bound him in honour to devote himself entirely to the service of that unfortunate princess. During some time, he had found means of conveying to her all her foreign correspondence; but after she was put under the custody of Sir Amias Paulet, and reduced to a more rigorous confinement, he experienced so much difficulty and danger in rendering her this service, that he had desisted from every' attempt of that nature.

WHEN Ballard began to open his intentions to Babing, ton, he found his zeal suspended, not extinguished: His former ardour revived on the mention of any enterprize, which seemed to promise success in the cause of Mary and of the catholic religion. He had entertained sentiments conformable to those of Paget, and represented the folly of all attempts, which, during the life-time of Elizabeth, could be formed againīt the established religion and government of England. Ballard, encouraged by this hint, proceeded to discover to him the design undertaken by Savage"; and was pleased to observe, that, instead of

H Camden, State Trials, p. 114.

being shocked with that project, Babington only thought CHAP. it not secure enough, when entrusted to one single hand, XLIII. and proposed to join four others with Savage in this der: 4 perate enterprize.

1586. In prosecution of these views, Babington employed himself in encreasing the number of his associates, and he secretly drew into the conspiracy many catholic gentlemen, discontented with the present government. Barnwel, of a noble family in Ireland, Charnoc, a gentleman of Lancashire, and Abington, whose father had been cofferer to the household, readily undertook the assassination of the queen. Charles Tilney the heir of an antient family, and Titchborne of Southampton, when the design was proposed to them, expressed some scruples, which were at last removed by the arguments of Babington and Ballard, Savage alone refused, during some time, to share the glory of the enterprize with any others'; hę challenged the whole to himself; and it was with some difficulty he was induced to depart from this preposterous ambition.

The delivery of the queen of Scots, at the very fame instant, when Elizabeth should be assassinated, was requisite for effecting the purpose of the conspirators; and Babington undertook, with a party of an hundred horse, to attack her guards, while she should be taking the air on horseback. In this enterprize, he engaged Edward Windsor, brother to the lord of that name, Thomas Salisbury, Robert Gage, John Travers, John Jones, and Henry Donne ; most of them men of family and interest. The conspirators much wanted, but could not find, any nobleman of name, whom they might place at the head of the enterprize; but they trusted, that the great events, of the queen's death and Mary's delivery, would rouze all the zealous catholics to arms; and that foreign forces, taking advantage of the general confufion, would easily fix the queen of Scots on the throne, and re-establish the antient religion.

These desperate projects had not escaped the vigilance of Elizabeth's council, particularly of Walsingham, secretary of state. That artful minister had engaged Maud, a catholic priest, whom he retained in pay, to


I State Trials, vol. i. p. !!!

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