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CHAP. merous voluntiers, who crowded to them; and they XLIII. were obliged to seize by force fome' ships of the Hanse

Towns, which they met with at lea: An expedieni, 1589. which set them somewhat more at ease in point of room

for their men, but remedied not the deficiency of their provisions T. Had they failed directly to Portugal, it is believed, that the goud will of the people, joined to the defenceless state of the country, might lave ensured them of success : But hearing, that great preparations were making at the Groine, for the invasion of England, they were induced to go thither, and destroy this new armament of Spain. They broke into the harbour, burned some thips, of war, particularly one commanded by Recalde, vice admiral of Spain, they defeated an army of four or five thousand men, which was assembled to oppofe them ; they affaulted the Groine, and took the lower town, which they pillaged ; and they would have taken the higher, though well fortified, had they not found their ammunition and provisions beginning to fail them. The young earl of Effex, a nobleman of promising hopes, who, fired with the thirst of military honour, had fecretly, unknown to the queen, stolen from England, here joined the adventurers; and it was then agreed by common consent to make fail for Portugal, the main object of their enterprize.

The English landed at Faniche, a sea-port town, twelve leagues from Lisbon'; and Norris led the army to that capital, while Drake undertook to sail up the river, and attack the city with united forces. By this time, the court of Spain had got leisure to prepare against the invafion of the English. Forces were thrown into Lisbon : the Portuguese were disarmed' : All suspected persons were taken into cuftody : And thus, though the inhabitants bore great affection to Don Antonio, none of them dared to declare in favour of the invaders. The English army, however, made themselves masters of the suburbs, which abounded with riches of all kinds ; but as they desired to conciliate the affections of the Portuguese, and were more intent on honour than profit, they observed a strict discipline, and abstained from all plunder. Meanwhile, they found their ammunition and provisions much exhausted, they had vot a single cannon to make a breach


T Monson, f. 159.

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in the walls; the admiral had not been able to pass some CH A P.
fortresses, which guarded the river ; there was no ap- XLII.
pearance of an insurrection in their favour ; fickness, from
fatigue, hunger, and intemperance in wine and fruits, 1589.
had seized the army : So that it was found requisite to
make all possible hafte to reimbark. They were not
pursued by the enemy; and finding, at the mouth of
the river, fixty ships laden with naval stores, they seized
them as lawful prize ; tho' they belonged to the Hanse
Towns, a neutral power. They failed thence to Vigo,
which shey took and burned ; and having ravaged the
country around, they fet fail and arrived in England.
Above half of these gallant adventurers perished by fick-
ness, famine, fatigue, and the sword '; and England
reaped much more honour than profit from this extraor-
dinary enterprize. It is computed, that eleven hundred
gentlemen embarked on board this fleet, and that only
three hundred and fifty survived those multiplied disasters *

WHEN the thips were on their voyage homewards,
they met with the earl of Cumberland, who was out-
ward bound, with a fleet of seven sail, all equipped at his
own charge, except one fhip of war, which the queen
had lent him. That nobleman supplied fir Francis
Drake with some provisions ; a generosity, which saved
the lives of many of Drake's men, but for which the
others afterwards suffered feverely. Cumberland failed
towards the Terceras, and took several prizes from the
enemy; but the richest, valued at a hundred thousand
pounds, perished in her return, with all her cargo, near
St. Michael's Mount in Cornwal. Many of these ad-
venturers were killed in a rafh attempt at the Terceras :
A destructive mortality seized the rest : And it was with
difficulty that the few hands, which remained, were able
to steer the ships home into harbour Y.

Though the signal advantages, gained over the Spa- Affairs af niards, and the spirit, thence infused into the English, Scotland. Gave Elizabeth great security during the rest of her reign, The could not for bear keeping an anxious eye on Scotland, whofe fituation rendered its revolutions always of importance to her. It might have been expected, that this high-spirited princess, who knew so well to brave danger,

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X Idem ibid.

U Birch's Memoirs, vol. i. p. 61. Y Monson, p. 161.

CHA P. would not have retained that malignant jealousy towards XLIII. her heir, with which, during the life-time of Mary, the

had been so much agitated. James had indeed succeeded 1589.

to all the claims of his mother ; but he had not succeeded to the favour of the catholics, which could alone render these claims dangerous 2: And as the queen was now well advanced in years, and enjoyed an uncontrouled authority over her subjects, it was not likely, that the king of Scots, who was of an indolent unambitious temper, would ever give her any disturbance in her possession of the throne. Yet all these circumstances could not remove her timorous suspicions: And so far from fatisfying the nation by a settlement of the succession, or a declaration of James's title, she was as anxious to prevent every incident, which might any-wise raise bis credit, or procure him the regard of the Englilh, as if he had been her immediate rival and competitor. Most of his ministers and favourites were her pensioners; and as she was desirous to hinder him from marrying and having children, she obliged them to throw obstacles in the way of every alliance, even the most reasonable, which could be offered him; and during some years, the succeeded in this malignant policy 4. He had fixed on the eldest daugliter of the king of Denmark, who, being a remote prince and not powerful, could give her no umbrage; yet did she so arifully cross this negociation, that the Danish monarch, impatient of delay, married his daughter to the duke of Brunswic. James then renewed his suit to the younger princess; and fill found obstacles from the intrigues of Elizabeth, who, merely with a view of interpofing delay, proposed to him the Gifter of the king of Navarre, a princess much older than himself, and entirely destitute of fortune. The young king, besides the desire of securing himself, by the prospect of issue, from those traiterous attempts, too frequent among his subjects, had been fo watched by the rigid austerity of the ecclesiastics, that he had another inducement ro marry, which is not so usual with monarchs. His impatience therefore broke through all the politics of Elizabeth: The articles of marriage were settled : The ceremony was performed by proxy: And the princess embarked for Scotland; but was driven by a storm into a port of Norway. This

tempest, 7 Winwooi, vol. i. p. 51. A Melvil, p. 166, 177.

tempeft, and some others, which happened near the CHAP. same time, were universally believed in Scotland and Den- XLIII. mark to have proceeded from a combination or the Scottilh and Danish witches; and the dying confession of the 1589. criminals was supposed to place the accusation beyond all controversy B. James, however, though a great believer in sorcery, was not deterred by this incident from taking a voyage, in order to conduct his bride home: He arrived in Norway; carried the queen thence to Copenhagen ; and having passed the winter in that city, he brought her next spring to Scotland, where they were joyfully received by the people. The clergy alone, who never neglected an opportunity of vexing their prince, made oppolition to the queen's coronation, on account of the ceremony of anointing her, which, they alledged, was either a Jewish or a popish rite ; and therefore utterly antichristian and unlawful. But James was as much

bent on the ceremony, as they were averse to it : and : after much controversy and many intrigues, his authority,

which had not often happened, at last prevailed over their opposition

B Melvil, p. 120.


Spotswood, p. 381,




French affairs.-Murder of the duke of Guise-Murder of Henry the third Progress of Henry the fourth

Naval enterprizes against Spain - A parliament

Henry the fourth embraces the catholic religion Scotch_affairs-Naval enterprizes -A par.iament

Peace of Vervins-The earl of Efex. CHAP. AFTER a state of great anxiety and many difficul. XLIV.

where, though her affairs still required attention, and 1590.

found employment for her active spirit, she was removed from all danger of any immediate revolution, and might regard the efforts of her enemies with some degree of conr. fidence and security. Her successful and prudent admi.. nistration had gained her, together with the adıniration of foreigners, the affections of her own subjects; and after the death of the queen of Scots, even the catholics, however discontented, pretended not to dispute her title, or adhere to any other person as her rival and competitor. James, curbed by his fa&ious nobility and ecclefiaftics, possessed at home very little authority; and was solicitous to remain on good terms with Elizabeth and the English nation, in hopes that time, aided by his patient tranquillity, would secure him that rich fucceffion, to which his birth entitled him. The Hollanders, tho' overmatched in their contest with Spain, ftill made an obftinate relift. ance; and such was their unconquerable antipathy to their old masters, and such the prudent conduct of young Maurice, their governor, that the subduing of that' small territory, if at all possible, must be the work of years, and the result of many and great successes. •Philip, who, in his powerful effort against England, had been transported by resentment and ambition beyond his usual cautious maxims, was now disabled, and still more discouraged, from adventuring again on such hazardous enterprizes. The situation allo of affairs in France, began chiefly to employ his attention : but notwithstanding all his artifice, and force, and expence, the events in that kingdom proved every day more contrary to his expectations,



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