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CHAP. been given four years before, but which had appeared fo XLIV. unusual, that they had voted it fhould never afterwards be regarded as a precedent. 1587.
THE Commons, this feffion, ventured to engage in two controverfies about forms with the houfe of peers; a prelude to thofe encroachments, which, as they affumed more courage, they afterwards made upon the preroga tives of the crown. They complained, that the lords failed in civility to them, by receiving their meffages fitting with their hats on; and that the keeper returned an anfwer in the fame negligent pofture. But the upper houfe proved, to their full fatisfaction, that they were not entitled, by cuftom, and the ufage of parliament, to any more refpe&t Y. Some amendments had been made by the lords, to a bill fent up by the commons; and these amendments were written on parchment, and returned with the bill to the commons. The lower house took umbrage at the novelty: They pretended, that these amendments ought to have been written on paper, not on parchment; and they complained of this innovation to the peers. The peers replied, that they expected not fuch a frivolous objection from the gravity of the house; and that it was not material, whether the amendments were written on parchment or on paper, nor whether the paper was white, black, or brown. The commons were offended with this reply, which feemed to contain a mockery of them; and they complained of it, though without obtaining any fatisfaction 2.
AN application was made, by way of petition to the queen, from the lower houfe, against monopolies; an abule which had rifen to an enormous height: and they received a gracious, though a general anfwer; for which they returned their thankful acknowledgments A. But not to give them too much encouragement in fuch applications, he told them, in the fpeech which the delivered at their diffolution, "That with regard to thefe patents, "the hoped, that her dutiful and loving fubjects would "not take away her prerogative, which is the chief "flower in her garden, and the principal and head pearl "in her crown and diadem; but that they would rather "leave these matters to her disposal B.: The commons
Y D'Ewes, p. 539, 540, 580, 585. Towfennd, p. 93, 94, 95. 2D'Ewes, p. 576, 577. A Ibid. p. 570, 573, Ibid. p. 547.
alfo took notice, this feffion, of fome tranfactions in the CHAP.
ELIZABETH had reafon to foresee, that parliamentary
© Ibid. p. 557, 558.
CHAP. ation as would enable him to mediate more effectually, XLIV. and with more decifive authority, in their behalf.
THE ambaffadors were fenfible, that these reasons were 1598. not feigned; and they therefore remonftrated with the lefs yehemence against the meafures, which, they faw, Henry was determined to purfue. The States knew, that that monarch was interested never to permit their final ruin; and having received private affurances, that he would ftill, notwithstanding the peace, give them affiftance both of men and money, they were well pleased to remain on terms of amity with him. His greatest concern was to give fatisfaction to Elizabeth for this breach of treaty. He had a cordial esteem for that princefs, a fympathy of manners and a gratitude for the extraordinary favours, which he had received from her, during his greatest difficulties: And he ufed every expedient to apologize and atone for that measure, which neceffity extorted from him. But as Spain refused to treat with the Dutch as a free ftate, and Elizabeth would not negociate Peace of without her ally, Henry found himself obliged to conYervins. clude, at Vervins, a feparate peace, by which he recovered poffeffion of all the places feized by Spain during the course of the civil wars, and procured himself leifure to attend to the domeftic fettlement of his kingdom. His capacity for the arts of peace was not inferior to his military talents; and, in a little time, by his frugality, order, and wife government, he raised France, from the defolation and mifery, in which he was involved, to a more flourishing condition than fhe had ever before enjoyed.
THE queen knew, that he could also, whenever she pleafed, finish the war on equitable terms; and that Phiip, having no claims upon her, would be glad to free himfelf from an enemy, who had foiled him in every conteft, and who had it ftill fo much in her power to make him feel the weight of her arms. Some of her wifeft counsellors, particularly the treasurer, advised her to embrace pacific meafures; and fet before her the advantages of tranquillity, fecurity, and frugality, as more confiderable than any fuccefs, which could attend the greatest victories. But that high-fpirited princefs, though at first averfe to war, feemed now to have attained fuch an afcendant over the enemy, that he was unwilling to ftop the courfe of her profperous fortune.
dered, that her fituation and her paft victories had given CHA P.
THESE reafons were frequently inculcated on her by
CHAP. to her fex and flation, he clapped his hand to his fword, XLIV. and fwore he would not bear fuch ufage, were it from Henry the eighth himself; and, in a great paffion, he im1598. mediately withdrew from court. Egerton, the chancellor, who loved Effex, exhorted him to repair his indifcretion by proper acknowledgments; and entreated him not to give that triumph to his enemies, that affli&ion to his friends, which must enfue from his fupporting a conteft with his fovereign, and deferting the fervice of his country: But Effex was deeply ftung with the difhonour, which he had received; and feemed to think, that an infult, which might be pardoned in a woman, was become a mortal affront when it came from his fovereign. "If the "vileft of all indignities," faid he, " is done me, does religion enforce me to fue for pardon? Doth God require it? Is it impiety not to do it? Why? Cannot "princes err? Cannot fubjects receive wrong? Is an
earthly power infinite? Pardon me, my lord, I can "never fubfcribe to these principles. Let Solomon's "fool laugh when he is ftricken; let those that mean to "make their profit of princes, fhew no fenfe of princes' "injuries: Let them acknowledge an infinite absoluteness "" on earth, that do not believe an abfolute infiniteness in "Heaven." (Alluding, probably, to the character and conduct of Sir Walter Raleigh, who lay under the reproach of impiety.) "As for me," continued he, "I "have received wrong, I feel it: My caufe is good, I "know it; and whatsoever happens, all the powers on "earth can never exert more ftrength and conftancy in "oppreffing, than I car fhew in fuffering every thing "that can or fhall be impofed upon me. Your lordship,
in the beginning of your letter, makes me a player, and yourself a looker on: And me a player of my own game, fo you may fee more than I: But give me leave to tell you, that fince you do but fee, and I do suffer, "I muft of necefity feel more than you."
THIS fpirited letter was fhewn by Effex to his friends; and they were fo imprudent as to difperfe copies of it: Yet notwithstanding that additional provocation, the queen's partiality was fo prevalent, that the reinstated him in his former favour; and her kindnefs to him appearedrather to have acquired new force from this fhort interval of anger and refentment. The death of Burleigh, his an
D See note at the end of the volume.