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tagonist, which happened about the same time, leemed to CHAP.
ensure him constant possession of the queen's confidence ; XLIV.
and nothing indeed but his own indiscretion could thence-
forth have shaken his well-established credit. Lord Bur. 1598.
leigh died in an advanced age; and by a rare fortune, was

4th Aug.
equally regretted by his sovereign and the people. He had
rilen gradually, from small beginnings, by the mere force
of merit; and though his authority was never entirely ab.
solute, or uncontrouled with the queen, he was still, during
the course of near forty years, regarded as her principal
minister. None of her other inclinations or affe&ions could
ever overcome her confidence in so useful a counsellor
and as he had had the generosity or good sense to pay assi-
duous court to her, during her sister's reign, when it was
dangerous to appear her friend, she thought herselt bound
in gratitude, when she mounted the throne, to persevere in
her attachments to him. He seems not to have poffeffed
any shining talents of address, eloquence, or imagination;
and was chiefly distinguished by folidity of understanding,
probity of manners, and indefatigable application in busi-
ness : virtues, which, if they do not always enable a man
to rise to high stations, do certainly qualify him best for
filling them. Of all the queen's ministers he alone left a
considerable fortune to his posterity; a fortune not ac-
quired by rapine or oppression, but gained by the regular
profits of his offices, and preserved by frugality.

The last act of this able minister was the concluding a 8th Aug, new treaty with the Dutch ; who, after being, in foine measure, deserted by the king of France, were glad to preserve the queen's alliance, by submitting to any terms which she plealed to require of them. The debt, which they owed her, was now fixed at eighi hundred thousand pounds: Of this sum they agreed to pay, during the war, thirty thousand pounds a year; and these payments were to continue till four hundred thousand pounds of the debt should be extinguished. They engaged also, during the time that England should continue the war with Spain, to pay the garrison of the cautionary towns. They ft:pulated, that, if Spain should invade England, or the isle of Wight, or Jersey, or Scilly, they should ailist her with a body of five thousand foot, and five hundred horse; and that in case the undertook any naval armament against Spain, they should join an equal number of thips to hers E. By

this E Rymer, vol. xvi. p. 370.

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CHAP. this treaty the queen was eased of an annual charge of an XLIV. hundred and twenty thousand pounds.

Soon after the death of Burleigh, the queen, who re1598.

gretted extremely the loss of so wise and faithful a minira ter, was informed of the death of her capital enemy, Philip the second, who, after languishing under many infirmities, expired in an advanced age at Madrid. This haughty prince, desirous of an accommodation with his revolted subjects in the Netherlands, but disdaining to make in his own name the concessions requisite for that purpose, had transferred to his daughter, married to arch. duke Albert, the property of the Low Country provinces; but as it was not expected, that this princess could have pofterity, and as the reversion, on failure of her issue, was still reserved to the crown of Spain, the States considered this deed only as the change of a name, and they perfifted with equal obstinacy in their resistance to the Spanish arms.

The other powers also of Europe, made no distinction between the courts of Brussels and Madrid; and the secret opposition of France, as well as the avowed efforts of England, continued to operate against the progrels of Albert, as it had done against that of Philip.





State of Ireland-Tyrone's rebellion-Essex sent over
to Ireland His ill success

-His ill success Returns to England
Is disgraced His intrigues-His in/urrellion

-His trial and execution- -French affairs -
Mountjoy's success in Ireland-Defeat of the Spani-
ards and Irish--- A parliament- -Tyrone's submission

Queen's sickness - And death-And character. THOUGH the dominion of the English over Ireland CHAP.

had been established above four centuries, it may XLV. safely be affirmed, that their authority had hitherto been little more than nominal. The Irish princes and nobles, 1599. divided among themselves, readily paid the exterior marks State of

Ireland. of obeisance to a power which they were not able to resist; but, as no durable force was ever kept on foot to retain them in their duty, they relapsed still into their former state of independence. Too weak to introduce order and obedience among the rude inhabitants, the English authority was yet sufficient to check the growth of any enterprizing genius among the natives: And though it could bestow no true form of civil government, it was able to prevent the rise of any such form, from the internal combination or policy of the Irish A.

Most of the English institutions likewise, by which that island was governed, were to the last degree absurd, and such as no state before had ever thought of, for the preserving dominion over its conquered provinces.

The English nation, all on fire for the project of subduing France, a project, whose success was the most improbable, and would to them have proved the most pernicious; neglected all other enterprizes, to which their situation so strongly invited them, and which, in time, would have brought them an accession of riches, grandeur and security. The small army, which they maintained in Ireland, they never supplied regularly with pay ; and as no money could be levied from the island, which. possessed none, they gave their soldiers the privilege of free quarter upon the natives. Rapine and infolence


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A Sir J. Davis, p. 5, 6, 7, &c.

CH A P. infamed the hatred, which prevailed between the conXLV. querors and the conquered: Want of security among the

Irith, introducing despair, nourished still farther the sloth, 1599. natural to that uncultivated people.

But the English carried farther their ill-judged tyranny. Instead of inviting the Irish to adopt the more civilized customs of their conquerors, they even refused, though earnestly solicited, to communicate to them the privilege of their laws, and every where marked them out as aliens and as enemies. Thrown out of the protection of justice, the natives could find no security but in force; and flying the neighbourhood of cities, which they could not approach with safety, they sheltered themselves in their marshes and forests from the infolence of their inbuman mallers. Being treated like wild beasts, they became such ; and joining the ardor of revenge to their yet untamed barbarity, they grew every day more intractable and more dangerous B.

As the English princes deemed the conquest of the difpersed Irith to be more the object of time and patience ihan the fource of military glory, they willingly delegated that office to private adventurers, who, inlifting soldiers at their own charge, reduced provinces of that island, which they converted to their own profit. Separate jurisdictions and principalities were established by thefe lordly conquerors : The power of peace and war was affumed: Military law was exercised over the Irish, whom they subdued, and, by degrees, over the English, by whose assistance they conquered: And, after their authority had once taken root, deeming the English institutions less favourable to barbarous dominion, they degenerated into mere Irish, and abandoned the garb, language, manners, and laws of their native country C.

By all this imprudent conduct of England, the natives of its dependant state remained still in that abject condition, into which the northern and western parts of Europe were funk, before they received civility and flavery from the refined policy and irresistible bravery of Rome. Even at the end of the sixteenth cene tury, when every christian nation was cultivating with ardour every

civil art of life, that ifland, lying

temperate climate, enjoying a fertile

in a


B Sir J. Davis, p. 102, 103, &c.

C Ibid. p. 133, 134, &c.

soil, accessible in its situation, possessed of innumerable C HA P.
harbours, was still, notwithstanding these advantages, XLV.
inhabited by a people, whose customs and manners ap-
proached nearer those of savages than of barbarians *. 1599.

As the rudeness and ignorance of the Irish was ex-
treme, they were sunk below the reach of that curiosity
and love of novelty, by which every other people in Eu-
rope had been seized at the beginning of that century,
and which had engaged them in innovations and religious
disputes, with which they were still so violently agitated.
The antient superstition, the practices and observances of
their fathers, mingled and polluted with many wild opi-
nions, still maintained an unshaken empire over them;
and the example alone of the English was sufficient to
render the reformation odious to the prejudiced and dir-
contented Irish. The old opposition of manners, laws,
and interests was now inflamed by a religious antipa-
thy; and the subduing and civilizing of that country
seemed to become every day more difficult and more im-

The animosity against the English was carried so far by the Irish, that, in an insurrection, raised by two sons of the earl of Clanricarde, they put to the sword all the inhabitants of the town of Athenry, though Irish; because they began to conform themselves to English cuftoms and institutions, and had embraced a more cultivated and civilized form of life, than had been pra&tised by their barbarous ancestors D.

The usual revenue of Ireland amounted only to fix thousand pounds a year ! : The queen, though with much repining", commonly added twenty thousand more, which the remitted from England : And with this small revenue, a body of one thousand men was supported, which, on extraordinary emergencies, was augmented to two thousando. No wonder that a force, so disproportioned to the object, instead of subduing a mutinous kingdom, served rather to provoke the natives, and to excite those frequent insurrections and rebellions, which ftill farther infamed the animosity between the two natiVOL. V.



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D Cam

den, p. 457

* See Spencer's account of Ireland, throughout.
E Memoirs of the Sidneys, vol. i. p.

Cox, p. 342. Sydney, vol. i. p. 85, 200.

G Camden, p. 542. Sydney, vol. i. p. 65, 109, 183, 184.

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