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CHAP. ons, and encreafed the barbarity and diforders, to which XLV. the frish were naturally fubject.

IN 1560, Shan O'Neale, or the great O'Neale, as the 1599. Irish called him, because head of that potent clan, raised a rebellion in Ulfter; but after fome skirmishes, he was received into favour, upon his fubmiffion, and his promife of a more dutiful behaviour for the future ". This impunity tempted him to undertake a new infurrection in 1567; but being pushed by Sir Henry Sidney, lord deputy, he retreated into Clandeboy, and rather than submit to the English, he put himself into the hands of fome Scottish islanders, who commonly infefted those parts by their incurfions. The Scots, who retained a quarrel against him on account of former injuries violated the laws of hofpitality, and murdered him at a festival, to which they had invited him. He was a man equally noted for his pride, his violences, his debaucheries, and his hatred of the English nation. He is faid to have put fome of his followers to death, because they endeavou red to introduce the use of bread after the English fashion '. Though so violent an enemy to luxury, he was extremely addicted to riot; and was accustomed, after his intemperance had thrown him into a fever, to plunge his body into mire, that he might allay the flame, which he had raised by former exceffes K. Such was the life led by this haughty barbarian, who fcorned the title of earl of Tyrone, which Elizabeth intended to have restored to him, and who affumed the rank and appellation of king of Ulfter. He ufed alfo to fay, that, though the queen was his fovereign lady, he never made peace with her but at her seeking L.

SIR Henry Sidney was one of the wifest and most active governors that Ireland had enjoyed for feveral reigns; and he poffeffed his authority eleven years; during which time, he ftruggled with many difficulties, and made fome progrefs in repreffing those disorders, which had become inveterate among that people. The earl of Defmond, in 1569, gave him disturbance, from the hereditary animofity, which prevailed between that nobleman and the earl of Ormond, defcended from the only family, established in Ireland, that had steadily maintained


H Camden, p. 385, 391. p. 409. Cox, p. 324.


I Ibid. p. 409.
L Ibid. p. 321.

K Camden, M Ibid. p. 350.

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Its loyalty to the English crown N. The earl of Tho- CHA P.
mond, in 1570, attempted a rebellion in Connaught, but XLV.
was obliged to fly into France, before his defigns were
ripe for execution. Stukeley, another fugitive, found
fuch credit with the pope, Gregory the 13th, that he flat-
tered his holiness with the prospect of making his ne-
phew, Buon Compagno, king of Ireland; and as if this
project had already taken effect, he accepted the title of
marquis of Leinster from the new fovereign°. He paffed
next into Spain; and after having received much encou-
ragement and great rewards from Philip, who intended to,
employ him as an inftrument to disturb queen Elizabeth,
he was found to poffefs too little intereft for executing
thofe high promises, which he had made to that monarch.
He retired into Portugal; and following the fortunes of
Don Sebaftian, he perifhed with that gallant prince in his
bold but unfortunate expedition against the Moors.


LORD Gray fucceeded Sydney in the government of Ireland; and, in 1579, fuppreffed a new rebellion of the earl of Desmond, though fupported by a body of Spaniards and Italians. The rebellion of the Bourks followed a few years after; occafioned by the ftrict and equitable adery Atration of Sir Richard Bingham, governor of Connaught, who endeavoured to repress the tyranny of the chieftains over their vaffals". The queen, finding Ireland fo burthenfome to her, tried several expedients for reducing it to a state of greater order and fubmiffion. She encouraged the earl of Effex, father to that nobleman," who was afterwards her favourite, to attempt the subduing and planting of Clandeboy, Ferny, and other territories, part of fome late forfeitures: But that enterprize proved unfortunate; and Effex died of a diftemper, occafioned, as is fuppofed, by the vexation, which he had conceived, from his disappointments. An univerfity was founded in Dublin with a view of introducing arts and learning into that kingdom, and civilizing the uncultivated manners of the inhabitants. But the most unhappy expedient, employed in the government of Ireland, was that made use of in 1585, by Sir John Perrot, at that time lord deputy: He put arms into the hands of the Irish inhabitants of Ulfter, in order to enable them, without the affiftance of the government, to reprefs the incurY 2 fions

Cox, p. 354.

N Camden, P. 424.,
Stowe, p. 720.

Ibid. p. 430.
Camden, p. 566.

CHAP. fions of the Scottish iflanders, by which these parts were XLV. much infested R. At the fame time, the invitations of Philip, joined to their zeal for the catholic religion, en1599. gaged many of the gentry to ferve in the Low Country wars; and thus Ireland, being provided both of officers and foldiers, of difcipline and arms, became formidable to the English, and was thenceforth able to maintain a more regular war against her antient mafters.

Tyrone's HUGH O'Neale, nephew to Shan O'Neale, had been rebellion. raised by the queen to the dignity of earl of Tyrone; but having murdered his coufin, ton of that rebel, and being acknowledged head of his clan, he preferred the pride of barbarous licence and dominion to the pleasures of opulence and tranquillity, and he fomented all those diforders, by which he hoped to weaken or overturn the English government. He was noted for the vices of perfidy and cruelty, fo common among uncultivated nations; and was alfo eminent for courage, a virtue, which their diforderly courfe of life requires, and which notwithstanding, being lefs fupported by the principle of honour, is commonly more precarious among them, than among a civilized people. Tyrone, actuated by this fpirit, fecretly fomented the dodvntents of the Maguires, O'Donnels, O'Rourk's, Mac Mahons, and other rebels; yet trusting to the influence of his deceitful oaths and profeffions, he put himself into the hands of Sir William Ruffel, who, in the year 1594, was fent over deputy into Ireland. Contrary to the advice and proteftation of Sir Henry Bagnal, marshal of the army, he was dismissed; and returning to his own country, he embraced the resolution of raising an open rebellion, and of relying no longer on the lenity or inexperience of the English government. He entered into a correfpondence with Spain: He procured thence a supply of arms and ammunition: And having united all the Irish chieftains in a dependance upon himself, he began to be regarded as a formidable enemy.

THE native Irish were fo miferably poor, that their country afforded few other commodities but cattle and oatmeal, which were easily destroyed or driven away on the approach of the enemy; and as Elizabeth was averse to the expence requifite for fupporting her armies, the Eng


R Nanton's Fragmenta Regalia, p. 203.

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lifh found much difficulty in pushing their advantages, CHA P.
and in pursuing the rebels into the bogs, woods, and XLV.
other faftneffes, to which they retreated. These motives
rendered Sir John Norris, who commanded the English 1599.
army, the more willing to hearken to any proposals of
truce or accommodation made him by Tyrone; and af-
ter the war was spun out by these artifices for fome years,
that gallant Englishman, finding that he had been de-
ceived by treacherous promifes, and that he had performed
nothing worthy of his antient reputation, was feized with a
Janguishing diftemper, and died of vexation and difcon-
tent. Sir Henry Bagnal, who fucceeded him in the com-
mand, was ftill more unfortunate. As he advanced to
relieve the fort of Black-water, befieged by the rebels,
he was surrounded in difadvantageous ground; his foldiers,
discouraged by part of their powder's accidentally taking
fire, were put to flight; and, though the pursuit was ftop-
ped by Montacute, who commanded the English horfe,
fifteen hundred men, together with the general himself,
were left dead upon the fpot. This victory, fo unusual
to the Irish, mightily raised their fpirits, fupplied them
with arms and ammunition, and exalted the reputation
of Tyrone, who affumed the character of the deliverer
of his country, and patron of Irish liberty §.

THE English council were now fenfible, that the rebellion of Ireland was come to a dangerous head, and that the former temporizing arts, of granting truces and pacifications to the rebels, and of allowing them to purchafe pardons by refigning part of the plunder, acquired during their infurrection, ferved only to encourage the fpirit of mutiny and disorder among them. It was therefore refclved to push the war by more vigorous measures; and the queen caft her eye on Charles Blount, lord Mountjoy, as a man, who, though hitherto lefs accustomed to arms than to books and literature, was endowed, the thought, with talents equal to that undertaking. But the young earl of Effex, ambitious of glory, and defirous of obtaining this government for himself, oppofed the choice of Mountjoy; and reprefented the neceffity of appointing, for that important employment, fome person more experienced in war than this nobleman, more practised in business, and of higher quality and reputation. By this defcription, he was understood to mean himfelfTM; and


T Bacon, vol. iv. p. 512.

S Cox, p. 415.


CHAP. no fooner was his defire known, to be poffeffed of that XLV. government, than his enemies, even more zealously than his friends, confpired to gratify his wishes. Many of 1599 his friends thought, that he never ought to confent, except for a fhort time, to accept of employments, which must remove him from court, and prevent him from cultivating that personal inclination, which the queen so vifibly bore him ". His enemies hoped, that, if, by his absence, she had once leisure to forget the charms of his perfon and conversation, his impatient and lofty demeanor would foon difguft a princefs, who ufually exacted fuch profound fubmiffion and implicit obedience from all her fervants. But Effex was incapable of entering into fuch cautious views; and even Elizabeth, who was extremely defirous of fubduing the Irish rebels, and who was much prepoffeffed in favour of Effex's genius, readily Effex fent agreed to appoint him governor of Ireland, under the tiover to tle of lord lieutenant. The more to encourage him in Ireland. his undertaking, the granted him by his patent more extenfive authority than had ever before been conferred on any lieutenant; the power of carrying on or finishing the war as he pleased, of pardoning the rebels, and of filling all the most confiderable employments of the kingdom X. And to enfure him of fuccefs, the levied a numerous army of fixteen thoufand foot and thirteen hundred horse, which the afterwards augmented to twenty thousand foot and two thoufand horfe: A force, which, it was apprehended, would be able, in one campaign, to overwhelm the rebels, and make an entire conqueft of Ireland. Nor did Effex's enemies, the earl of Nottingham, Sir Robert Cecil, Sir Walter Raleigh, and lord Cobham, throw any obftables in the way of thefe preparations; but hoped, that the higher the queen's expectations were raised of fuccefs, the more difficult it would be for the event to correfpond to them. In a like view, they rather feconded, than oppofed, thofe exalted encomiums, which Effex's numerous and fanguine friends difperfed, of his high genius, of his elegant endowments, his heroic courage, his unbounded generosity, and his noble birth; nor were they displeased to obferve that paffionate fondnefs, which the people every where expreffed for this nobleman. These artful poli


v Cabbala, p. 79.


× Rymer, tom. xvi. p. 366.

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