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her the fucceffor: That no expedient could be worse CHA P.
Z Buchanan, lib. xvii. c. 14-17. Cambden, p. 385.
CHAP. THESE views of the queen were fo prudent and judi XXXIX. cious, that there was no likelihood of her ever departing from them: But that she might put the matter to a fuller 1561. proof, fhe offered to explain the words of the treaty of Edinburgh, fo as to leave no fufpicion of their excluding Mary's right of fucceffion A; and in this form, she again required her to ratify that treaty. Matters at last came to this iffue, that Mary agreed to the proposal, and offered to renounce all prefent pretenfions to the crown of England, provided Elizabeth would agree to declare her the fucceffor B. But fuch was the jealous character of this latter princess, that the never would consent to ftrengthen the intereft and authority of any claimant, by fixing the fucceffion; much less would she make this conceffion in favour of a rival queen, who poffeffed fuch plaufible pretenfions for the present, and who, though fhe might verbally renounce them, could easily refume her title on the first opportunity. Mary's proposal, however, bore fo fpecious an appearance of equity and juftice, that Elizabeth, sensible that reason would be deemed to lie entirely on that fide, made no more mention of the matter; and though farther conceffions were never made by either princess, they put on all the appearances of a cordial reconciliation and friendship with each other.
Wife goTHE queen obferved, that, even without her intervernment pofition, Mary was fufficiently depreffed by the mutinous of Eliza- fpirit of her own fubjects; and instead of giving Scotland, for the prefent, any inquietude or difturbance, she employed herself, more usefully and laudably, in regulating the affairs of her own kingdom, and promoting the happiness of her people. She made fome progrefs in paying those great debts which lay upon the crown; she regulated the coin, which had been much debafed by her predeceffors; the furnished her arsenals with great quantities of arms from Germany and other places; engaged her nobility and gentry to imitate her example in this particular; introduced into the kingdom the art of making gun-powder and brass cannon; fortified her frontiers on the fide of Scotland; made frequent reviews of the militia; encouraged agriculture by allowing a free exportation of corn: promoted trade and navigation; and
A Ibid. p. 181. B Haynes, vol. i. p. 377.. den, p. 388. Strype, vol. i. p. 230, 236, 337.
fo much encreased the shipping of her kingdom, both by CHA P.
IT is eafy to imagine, that fo great a princefs, who
© Cambden, p. 388. Strype, vol. i. p. 230, 336, 337-
CHA P. would obtain the preference above so many princes and XXXIX. monarchs. But the queen gave all these fuitors a gentle refufal, which still encouraged their purfuit; and the 1561. thought, that she should the better attach them to her interefts, if they were ftill allowed to entertain hopes of fucceeding in their pretenfions. It is also probable, that this policy was not entirely free from a mixture of female coquetry; and that, though she was determined in her own mind never to fhare her power with any man, fhe was not difpleafed with the courtship, folicitation, and profeffions of love, which the defire of acquiring fo valuable a prize procured her from all quarters.
WHAT is moft fingular in the conduct and character of Elizabeth, is, that, though the determined never to have any heir of her own body, the was not only very averse to fix any fucceffor to the crown; but feems alfo to have refolved, as far as it lay in her power, that one, who had any pretenfions to the fucceffion, should ever have any heir or fucceffors. If the exclufion given by the will of Henry VIII. to the pofterity of Margaret, queen of Scotland, was allowed to be valid, the right to the crown devolved on the house of Suffolk; and the lady Catharine Gray, younger fifter to the lady Jane, was now the heir of that family. This lady had been married to lord Herbert, fon of the earl of Pembroke ; but having been divorced from that nobleman, she had made a private marriage with the earl of Hertford, fon of the protector; and her husband, foon after confummation, travelled into France. In a little time she appeared to be pregnant, which fo enraged Elizabeth, that The threw her into the tower, and fummoned Hertford to appear, in order to answer for his misdemeanor. He made no fcruple of acknowledging the marriage, which, though concluded without the queen's confent was entirely fuitable to both parties; and for this offence he was alfo committed to the tower. Elizabeth's feverity stopped not here: She iffued a commiffion to enquire into the matter; and as Hertford could not, within the time limited, prove the nuptials by witneffes, the commerce between him and his confort was declared unlawful, and their pofterity illegitimate. They were still detained in cuftody; but by bribing their keepers, they found means to have farther intercourfe; and another child appeared to be the fruit of their commerce, This was a fresh
fource of vexation to the queen; who made a fine. of CHAP.
THERE happened, about this time, fome other events in the royal family, where the queen's condu&t was mɔre laudable. Arthur Pole, and his brother, nephews to the late cardinal, and defcended from the duke of Clarence, together with Anthony Fortefcue, who had married a fifter of these gentlemen, and fome other perfons, were brought to their trial for intending to withdraw into France, with a view of foliciting fuccours from the duke of Guife, of returning thence into Wales, and of proclaiming Mary queen of England, and Arthur Pole duke of Clarence. They confeffed the indictment, but afferted, that they never meant to execute these projects during the queen's life-time: They had only deemed fuch precautions requifite in cafe of her death, which, some pretenders to judicial aftrology had affured them, they might with certainty look for before the year expired. They were condemned by the jury; but received their pardon from the queen's clemency F.
E Haynes, vol. i. p. 369, 378, 396.
Cambden, p. 389.