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her the fucceffor: That no expedient could be worse CHA P.
imagined for cementing friendship than fuch a declara- XXXIX.
tion; and kings were often found to bear no goodwill to
their fucceffors, even though their own children; much 1561:
more when their connexion was lefs intimate, and when
fuch caufe of disgust and jealousy had already been
given, and indeed was ftill continued, on the part of -
Mary: That though she was willing, from the amity
which the bore her kinfwoman, to ascribe her former
pretenfions to the advice of others, by whofe direction
she was then governed; her present refufal to relinquish
them could proceed only from her own prepoffeffions, and
was a proof that she still harboured fome dangerous projec
against her: That it was the nature of all men to be dif-
gufted with the prefent, to entertain flattering views of
futurity, to think their fervices ill rewarded, to expect a
better recompence from the fucceffor; and the should
esteem herself scarcely half a fovereign over the English,
if they saw her declare her heir, and arm her rival with
authority against her own repose and safety; That she
knew the inconftant nature of the people; fhe was ac-
quainted with the present divifions in religion; fhe was
not ignorant, that the fame party, which expected great-
eft favour during the reign of Mary, did alfo imagine,
that the title of that princefs was fuperior to her own:
That for her part, whatever claims were advanced, the
was determined to live and die queen of England; and
after her death,, it was the business of others to examine
who had the best pretenfions, either by the laws or by
right of blood, to the fucceffion: That he hoped the
queen of Scots's claim would then be found folid; and
confidering the injury, which the herself had received,
it was fufficient indulgence, if the promised, in the mean
time, to do nothing which might, in any respect, weaken
or invalidate it: And that Mary, if her title was really
preferable, a point, which, for her own part, she had
never enquired into, poffeffed all advantages above her
rivals, who, deftitute both of prefent power, and of
all fupport by friends, would only expofe themfelves to
inevitable ruin, by advancing any weak, or even doubt--
ful pretenfions 2.


Z Buchanan, lib. xvii. c. 14-17. Cambden, p. 385.
Spotfwood, p. 180, 181.

CHAP. THESE views of the queen were fo prudent and judi XXXIX. cious, that there was no likelihood of her ever departing from them: But that she might put the matter to a fuller 1561. proof, fhe offered to explain the words of the treaty of Edinburgh, fo as to leave no fufpicion of their excluding Mary's right of fucceffion A; and in this form, she again required her to ratify that treaty. Matters at last came to this iffue, that Mary agreed to the proposal, and offered to renounce all prefent pretenfions to the crown of England, provided Elizabeth would agree to declare her the fucceffor B. But fuch was the jealous character of this latter princess, that the never would consent to ftrengthen the intereft and authority of any claimant, by fixing the fucceffion; much less would she make this conceffion in favour of a rival queen, who poffeffed fuch plaufible pretenfions for the present, and who, though fhe might verbally renounce them, could easily refume her title on the first opportunity. Mary's proposal, however, bore fo fpecious an appearance of equity and juftice, that Elizabeth, sensible that reason would be deemed to lie entirely on that fide, made no more mention of the matter; and though farther conceffions were never made by either princess, they put on all the appearances of a cordial reconciliation and friendship with each other.


Wife goTHE queen obferved, that, even without her intervernment pofition, Mary was fufficiently depreffed by the mutinous of Eliza- fpirit of her own fubjects; and instead of giving Scotland, for the prefent, any inquietude or difturbance, she employed herself, more usefully and laudably, in regulating the affairs of her own kingdom, and promoting the happiness of her people. She made fome progrefs in paying those great debts which lay upon the crown; she regulated the coin, which had been much debafed by her predeceffors; the furnished her arsenals with great quantities of arms from Germany and other places; engaged her nobility and gentry to imitate her example in this particular; introduced into the kingdom the art of making gun-powder and brass cannon; fortified her frontiers on the fide of Scotland; made frequent reviews of the militia; encouraged agriculture by allowing a free exportation of corn: promoted trade and navigation; and


A Ibid. p. 181. B Haynes, vol. i. p. 377.. den, p. 388. Strype, vol. i. p. 230, 236, 337.

C Camb

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fo much encreased the shipping of her kingdom, both by CHA P.
building veffels of force herself, and fuggefting like un- XXXIX.
dertakings to the merchants, that he was justly stiled
the restorer of naval glory, and the queen of the nor-
thern feas C. The natural frugality of her temper, fo
far from incapacitating her for these great enterprizes,
only enabled her to execute them with greater certainty
and fuccefs; and all the world faw in her conduct the
happy effects of a vigorous perfeverance in judicious and
well-concerted projects.

IT is eafy to imagine, that fo great a princefs, who
enjoyed fuch fingular felicity and renown, would receive
proposals of marriage from every one, that had any like-
lihood of fucceeding; and though fhe had made fome
public declarations in favour of a fingle life, few believed,
that the would perfevere for ever in that refolution. The
archduke Charles, fecond fon of the emperor D, as well
as Cafimir, fon of the elector palatine, made applications
to her; and as this latter prince profeffed the reformed
religion, he thought himself, on that account, better
entitled to fucceed in his addreffes. Eric, king of Swe-
ded, and Adolph, duke of Holftein, were encouraged by
the fame views to become fuitors. And the earl of Ar-
ran, heir to the crown of Scotland, was, by the states
of that kingdom, recommended to her as a fuitable mar-
riage. Even fome of her own fubjects, though they
did not openly declare their pretenfions, entertained
hopes of fuccefs. The earl of Arundel, a perfon de-
clining in years, but defcended from an antient and noble
family, as well as poffeffed of great riches, flattered
himself with this profpect; as did alfo Sir William Pick-
ering, a man much efteemed for his perfonal merit.
But the perfon most likely to fucceed, was a younger
fon of the late duke of Northumberland, lord Robert
Dudley, who, by means of his exterior qualities, joined
to addrefs and flattery, had become, in a manner, her
declared favourite, and had great influence in all her
counfels. The lefs worthy he appeared of this diftinc-
tion, the more was his great favour ascribed to fome vio-
lent affection, which could thus feduce the judgment of
this penetrating princefs; and men long expected that he



© Cambden, p. 388. Strype, vol. i. p. 230, 336, 337-
Haynes, vol. i. p. 233.

CHA P. would obtain the preference above so many princes and XXXIX. monarchs. But the queen gave all these fuitors a gentle refufal, which still encouraged their purfuit; and the 1561. thought, that she should the better attach them to her interefts, if they were ftill allowed to entertain hopes of fucceeding in their pretenfions. It is also probable, that this policy was not entirely free from a mixture of female coquetry; and that, though she was determined in her own mind never to fhare her power with any man, fhe was not difpleafed with the courtship, folicitation, and profeffions of love, which the defire of acquiring fo valuable a prize procured her from all quarters.


WHAT is moft fingular in the conduct and character of Elizabeth, is, that, though the determined never to have any heir of her own body, the was not only very averse to fix any fucceffor to the crown; but feems alfo to have refolved, as far as it lay in her power, that one, who had any pretenfions to the fucceffion, should ever have any heir or fucceffors. If the exclufion given by the will of Henry VIII. to the pofterity of Margaret, queen of Scotland, was allowed to be valid, the right to the crown devolved on the house of Suffolk; and the lady Catharine Gray, younger fifter to the lady Jane, was now the heir of that family. This lady had been married to lord Herbert, fon of the earl of Pembroke ; but having been divorced from that nobleman, she had made a private marriage with the earl of Hertford, fon of the protector; and her husband, foon after confummation, travelled into France. In a little time she appeared to be pregnant, which fo enraged Elizabeth, that The threw her into the tower, and fummoned Hertford to appear, in order to answer for his misdemeanor. He made no fcruple of acknowledging the marriage, which, though concluded without the queen's confent was entirely fuitable to both parties; and for this offence he was alfo committed to the tower. Elizabeth's feverity stopped not here: She iffued a commiffion to enquire into the matter; and as Hertford could not, within the time limited, prove the nuptials by witneffes, the commerce between him and his confort was declared unlawful, and their pofterity illegitimate. They were still detained in cuftody; but by bribing their keepers, they found means to have farther intercourfe; and another child appeared to be the fruit of their commerce, This was a fresh


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fource of vexation to the queen; who made a fine. of CHAP.
fifteen thousand pounds be fet on Hertford by the Star- XXXIX:
Chamber, and ordered his confinement to be thenceforth
more rigid and fevere. He lay in this condition for nine
years, till the death of his wife, by freeing Elizabeth
from all fears, produced him his liberty E. This ex-
treme feverity must be accounted for, either by the un-
relenting jealousy of the queen, who was afraid that a
pretender to the fucceffion would acquire credit by hav-
ing iffue; or by her malignity, which, with all her great
qualities, made one ingredient in her character, and
which led her to envy in others thofe natural pleasures
of love and pofterity, of which her own ambition and
defire of dominion made her renounce all prospect for

THERE happened, about this time, fome other events in the royal family, where the queen's condu&t was mɔre laudable. Arthur Pole, and his brother, nephews to the late cardinal, and defcended from the duke of Clarence, together with Anthony Fortefcue, who had married a fifter of these gentlemen, and fome other perfons, were brought to their trial for intending to withdraw into France, with a view of foliciting fuccours from the duke of Guife, of returning thence into Wales, and of proclaiming Mary queen of England, and Arthur Pole duke of Clarence. They confeffed the indictment, but afferted, that they never meant to execute these projects during the queen's life-time: They had only deemed fuch precautions requifite in cafe of her death, which, some pretenders to judicial aftrology had affured them, they might with certainty look for before the year expired. They were condemned by the jury; but received their pardon from the queen's clemency F.

E Haynes, vol. i. p. 369, 378, 396.
Heylin, p. 154.
F Strype, vol. i. p. 333.

E 2

Cambden, p. 389.
Heylin, p. 154.


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