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into one of his noftrils; accompanied with directions how to straiten the gullet, by p effing on the cricoid cartilage, in order to prevent the air from paffing into the ftomach.

Art. 18. An Abridgement of Baron Van Swieten's Commentaries on Boerhaave's Aphorifms, concerning the Knowledge and Cure of Difeafes. By Colin Hoffack, M Ď. of Colchester, Phyfician to his Royal Highnefs Frederic Prince of Wales. 8vo. Vols. 3, 4, and 5. Price unbound 12 s. Horsfield.

Dr. Hoffack's Abridgement, which is now compleated, was. briefly recommended to the public, in our Review for August, 1774, p. 158.

MATHEMATICS.

Art. 19. Practical Perspective. Being a Course of Leffons, exhibiting eafy and concife Rules for drawing juftly all forts of Objects. Adapted to the Ufe of Schools. By H. Clarke. In Two Volumes. 8vo. Vol. I. 6s. boards. Nourse, &c. This volume contains fifty-two leffons, illuftrating the practice. of perfpective in a great variety of cafes, and in a manner intelligible to thofe young perfons, for whom they are intended. The Author begins with the most fimple problem, that of finding the perfpective of a point; he proceeds to investigate the reprefentations of lines and planes, fituated on and parallel to the ground plane: he next teaches, how to exhibit the appearances of lines, planes, and folids, perpendicular to the ground plane, and afterwards of fuch as are inclined to it. He has likewife illuftrated the practice of fciagraphic perspective, and laid down rules for catoptric appearances according to the various pofitions of the reflecting furface with respect to the horizon. He has also briefly defcribed the nature of theatrical perspective together with the theory of horizontal pictures and cieling-pieces; and directed how to take views without the affiftance of any inftrument or actual meafurement. The whole is comprised in a fmall compass, and accompanied with a variety of raised and shaded figures for the more familiar illuftration of the leffons proposed.

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In a fecond volume which the Author promifes in the preface, and which is neceffary to complete his defign, he furnishes a number of drawings, as examples and applications of the rules delivered in the first. In architecture, he propofes to give the perspective elevations of the orders, arches, doors, niches, &c. with the perfpective of various modes of buildings, fquares, streets. avenues, &c. in geography, the projections of the fphere, for the construction of maps, charts, &c. in aftronomy, the conAruction of celeftial planifpheres, analemmas, aftrolabes, dials, &c. As alfo the construction of tranfits, folar and lunar eclipfes, &c.' Art. 20. The Nautical Almanac, and Aftronomical Ephemeris,

for the Year 1778. Published by order of the Commiffioners of - Longitude. 8vo. 3 s 6d. Nourse.

To this volume, befide the ufual contents, are added, Right Afcenfions and Zenith Distances of the Moon, deduced from

* Vid. former Reviews.

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Dr. Bradley's Obfervations; and Aftronomical Problems by Mrs Lyons. The two first of thefe problems propofe an eafy method of determining the altitude of the fun, moon, or a ftar at any time, the meridional altitude being known, by means of the Ephemeris, without an observation. The two other problems determine the latitude of any place of obfervation, from the time which the fun's diameter takes to pafs either a horizontal or a vertical fine.

AMERICAN CONTROVERSY.

Art. 21. Three Letters to Dr. Price, containing Remarks on his Obfervations," &c. By a Member of Lincoln's Inn, F.R.S. F. S. A. 8vo. 2 s. 6 d. Payne.

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A part of thefe Letters was published fome months fince in the Gazetter under the fignature of Attilius: they are probably the work of Mr. Ld, the reputed Author, of "Remarks on the principal Acts of the laft Parliament;" a performance which afforded us objects as well of approbation as cenfure. The Letters under confideration discover great ability in the Writer, though it does not feem to be always rightly or fuccessfully employed; especially when exerted against the more fundamental principles of Dr. Price's performance.

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Mr. L. cenfures the Doctor's definition of Liberty on account of its implying, as he fuppofes, fomething pofitive,' viz. the power of felf-direction or of felf-government;' and alleges that the terms liberty, felf-determination, felf-direction, felf-government, convey only negative ideas;' and that liberty is clearly nothing more nor lefs than the absence of coercion.-I use the term coercion, fays he, because it comprises conftraint and restraint; by the former a man may be compelled to do, by the latter to forbear, certain acts.'— This notion of liberty' the Author afcribes to a very worthy and ingenious friend;' and fays it will make a leading principle in a work which this Gentleman means to give the world.' Whether this notion' be just or not, appears to us of but little importance, as we do not comprehend how the controverfy can be materially affected, by confidering liberty as pofitive or only as negative; for certainly one who has no powers cannot be free; neither is it poffible that one in that fituation fhould become the object of restraint, the idea of which neceffarily fuppofes an obftacle to fome action which the perfon reftrained might have otherwife performed: it would certainly appear very ridiculous to build a wall round a plant which has no locomotive power, and pretend that by this inclofure the plant had been refrained from walking: nothing can therefore be faid to have reftrained a man in the government or direction of himself in any inftance wherein he would not without much reftraint have had the power of felf direction or of felf-government;' though the Author will not admit this power to be the conflituent of liberty. He afterwards divides liberty into phyfical and moral, and offers fome, not improper, ftrictures upon Dr. Price's divifions of it.

The Author's Second Letter treats of Civil Liberty: in writing on this topic Dr. Price had faid that "in every free flate every man is his can legislator, all taxes are free gifts for public fervices; all laws 8

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are particular provifions or regulations, established by common confent? for gaining protection and fafety: all magiftrates are truflees or de puties for carrying thefe regulations into execution."

The meaning of this paffage Mr. L. chufes to mistake, and to fuppofe that the Doctor intended to maintain that in a free flate each individual ought feparately to make laws for his own distinct government; and having fpeat fome time in ridiculing this abfurdity, he next fuppofes it to have been the Doctor's meaning that the unanimous confent of every individual in a free community should be neceffary to the establishment of any law for governing the community: a pofition which he takes care fufficiently to ridicule. But these, and other fuppofitions of the Author, are in themfelves fo extravagant, and fo incompatible with the whole tendency of Dr. Price's arguments, that we must conclude his meaning to have been wilfully mistaken, and confider the Author's wit and humour on these topics as mifapplied and fomewhat impertinent. The very inftitution of a political fociety requires that thofe who enter into it, fhould be governed by one common will, and that the will of a greater or leffer majority should be confidered as the will of all, whenever unanimity is wanting. And neither Dr. Price nor the warmest advocate for liberty could be concerned to maintain more on this fubject, than that in every civil fociety, the only just foundation of government is the confent of those who are governed; and that in a free government (fuch as our own) the people, however they may divest themfelves of the executive power, ought to retain a fhare in the legislative, and that their confent, or that of a majority of them, given perfonally or by their fubftitutes, fhould be neceffary to the validity of any law. And this doctrine, if it be true, is abundantly fufficient to justify the claim of the colonies to an exemption from the authority of parliament, fo long as they are deprived of all participation in that authority: and against this doctrine nothing has been urged by our Author, which appears to us of the leaft force: on the contrary, he feems to have evaded the fubject by imputing abfurdities, only for the purpose of refuting them.

We are restrained from purfuing the courfe of this Writer's remarks, any further than as they relate to the fundamental principles delivered by Dr. Price. Thefe we think Mr. L-d has failed in attempting to refute, though he certainly has, with much fagacity andknowledge, detected many fallacies and defeats in the Doctor's lefs important arguments and obfervations.

Art. 22. Obfervations on the Nature of Civil Liberty, and the Principles of Government. By Rich. Hey, M. A. Fellow of Sidney Suflex College, Cambridge, and Barrister at Law of the Middle Temple. 8vo. I s. Cadell.

If the title of thefe Obfervations (fays Mr. Hey) be compared with the title of the pamphlet lately published by Dr. Price; it may perhaps be thought that they were intended to be an anfwer to that pamphlet, and intended for nothing more. This is not the cafe. I have gone fo far as to examine fome of the principles delivered by that Author; but I do not pretend to have confidered them all. I have alfo gone forwards fometimes in purfuit of fuch thoughts as prefented themfelves, without any intention of confirming, refuting, or examining what Dr. Price or

any

any other author had advanced. Therefore it will be in vain to expect that every sentence should have fome immediate reference to the doctrines of this or that party. The whole is only a fmali collection of miscellaneous remarks; fuch however as actually occurred in a courfe of thinking. They are thrown freely into the common flock of fpeculations on thefe interefting fubject.: and, if all that has been and will be thrown into that common stock can but enable the fincere and fimple reafoner to form fome fatisfactory opinions, he will think it but of fmall confequence to fee minutely from whom he received any affiftance.'

Mr. Hey agrees with Mr. L-d in denying that liberty is any thing pofitive; but differs from him in this, that he confiders it as being merely the absence of restraint;' and not of restraint and conftraint; the latter term implying an exertion of pofitive violence.

Mr. Hey's Obfervations are generally delivered in the candid liberal ftyle of a Gentleman; and many of them deferve particular attention.

Art. 23. Licentiousness Unmasked; or, Liberty explained. 8vo. I s. Bew.

Of all the numerous answers which have appeared to Dr. Price's late publication, this feems to be the most unconnected, fuperficial, and unworthy.

Art. 24. Reflections on the most proper Means of reducing the Rebels, and what ought to be the Confequence of our Success. By an Officer who ferved the laft War in America. 8vo. I S. Wilkie.

This Officer advises us to attempt the reduction of America by two armies to be fent, one to Quebec, and the other to South Carolina, The former he fuppofes might be greatly augmented by Canadians and favages, and the later by the negroes in thefe provinces; and being thus augmented, he thinks they might fuccessfully advance towards each other, through the middle colonies, and effect the conqueft of America.-One part of a plan fomewhat fimilar to this has lately mifcarried; the other parts are under trial; and any prediction of the event may not long be wanted.

After having fubdued the Colonies, the Author advises us to lay many reftraints on the conquered, and to grant them very few indulgences.

Art. 25. American Patriotifm farther confronted with Reason,

Scripture, and the Constitution: being Obfervations on the dangerous Politics taught by the Rev. Mr. Evans, M. A. and the Rev. Dr. Price. With a fcriptural Plea for the revolted Colonies. By J. Fletcher, Vicar of Madeley, Salop. 12mo. 9 d. Buckland, &c.

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Mr. F. ftill keeps the field, and feems determined to protract the war. If the wearied Readers afk-to what good purpose?' hear his anfwer: Beafts and favages can be conquered by fire and fword; but it is the glory of men and Chriftians to be fubdued by argument and fcripture. Force may indeed bend the body, but truth alone properly bends the mind. Whilst our armies prepare to engage the majority in America with the dreadful implements of war, it will not therefore be amifs to engage the ecclefiaftical minority in England, with the harmlefs implements of controverly.

On

On some occafions, one pen may do more execution than a battery of cannon: A page of well applied fcriptures may be of more extenfive ufe than a field of battle: And drops of ink may have a greater effect than ftreams of blood. If a broad fide can fink a man of war, and send a thousand men to the bottom; a good argument can do far more: For it can fink a prejudice which fits out an hundred fhips, and arms, it may be, fifty thousand men.'

It were well for mankind if national quarrels could be made up in this unbloody way; of the efficacy of which Mr. F. has fo good an opinion. For our part, we fhould certainly agree with our Author, in preferring writing to fighting; and happy it is for us fcribblers, that amidst all the din and deftruction of diftant war, que, at home, are not employed in wielding any weapon more dangerous than a goofe-quill.

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To speak feriously, however, of Mr. F.'s prefent performance, it is, like his former piece on this fubje&*, wordy, fpecious, and artful. He alternately attacks the champions on the other fide of the question, Dr. Price, and Mr. Evans; and he, evidently, thinks himfelf a match for them both. What the Public will think, is another point, and to the Public we refer it for we are almost tired of the fruitless conteft; and, moreover, have before us, a large arrear of matter which, we apprehend, will prove much more agreeable to the generality of our Readers.-One word, however, with this writer, before we part.-Mr. F. is a little chagrined at our ftyling him, in the article above referred to, a meer Sacheverell; and he takes pains, in this publication, to fhew his equal abhorrence of regal, or of mobbish tyranny. We are glad to find this Rev. gentleman thus difclaiming thofe principles to which many of his pofitions and arguments obviously lead; and we charitably hope that he was not aware of the full extent and tendency of their operation. Mr. F. is, by all report, a good man; but he will never, we fufpect, obtain a good report merely for his politics +: except with thofe who have already embraced the fame fyftem: for mankind are too much guided by Swift's rule, of pronouncing those right who think as we do, and every one wrong who differs from us.-Poor encouragement, by the way, for our Author to expend his ink, and wear out his pens, in order to convert those political Heretics the advocates for America.

• See Rev. April, p. 325. Vind. of Wesley.

+ We do not mean this hint with refpect to the fide which Mr. F. has taken, in our prefent unhappy difputes with the Colonies, but to his modes of reafoning, which feem to be ill calculated for the fupport of the caufe he wishes to defend unless his chief aim is to fatisfy the doubts of the honeft mechanics and plowmen of Madely parish who may wonderfully edify by his familiar cafes of parent and child, mafter and fervant, apothecary and doctor, &c. &c. all brought in to illuftrate the doctrines of reprefentation, taxation, fubjection, paffive-obedience, and other great questions relative to government and ftate policy.

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