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Returning from the chapel, through the library, and paffing by another great ftair-cafe, we enter a paffage, or gallery, which leads to two great state bed-chambers, each 30 feet long, moft nobly furnished, with double dreffing-rooms, clofets, and other conveniences, all in the higheft elegance and magnificence, but as conformable as poffible to the general style of the castle. From thefe bed-chambers, the paffage opens to the grand ftair cafe, by which we firft entered, and completes a tour not easily to be paralleled.'
Mr. G. informs his readers, towards the conclufion of his preface, that he has been much flattered by the requests of many purchasers, that he would continue the publication. This requeft, he acknowledges, a partiality to the fubject, as well as lucrative confiderations, would have induced him, willingly, to have complied with, could he have done it without a breach of faith to the first encouragers of the work, as fuch continuation would have reduced them to the alternative of either being drawn into a greater expence than was at first propofed, or of having an imperfect work.' But,
Several ingenious friends having alfo fuggefted, that a set of ground plans would ferve greatly to illuftrate the defcriptions of the caftles and monafteries,'Mr. G. has caufed fuch as he was poffeffed of, or could obtain from actual furveys, or authentic drawings, to be engraved ;-thefe may be either bound up with the views, or they will make a diftinét volume. They are, accordingly, published feparately under the following title:
A Collection of PLANS of the Antiquities of England and Wales. By Francis Grofe, Efq. 4to. 10 s. 6d. Boards. Hooper.
Thefe plans are 32 in number. Their utility, as Mr. G. obferves, it will be scarce neceffary to point out, as there are very few perfons who do not know that a mere perspective view gives only the appearance, as feen from a particular fpot; but that to form an exact idea of any building, with the proportions of its parts, a plan as well as elevation is neceffary.These fupplemental plates may be bound with each refpective defcription; which method we should prefer to that of a feparate volume. And, in order to this arrangement, the purchafer, or bookbinder, will be affifted by the indexes, of which the Author has given two, on different plans: one, a general alphabetical lift; the other, digefted according to the feveral counties in which the antiquities are fituated.
ART. IX. Travels in Greece; or, an Account of a Tour made at the Expence of the Society of DILETTANTI. By Richard Chandler, D. D. Fellow of Magdalen College, and of the Society of Antiquaries. 4to. 16 s. Boards. Dodsley, &c. 1776.
E have, in our Number for March laft, given fome account of Dr. Chandler's Tour in Afia; and on former occafions, we explained the motives, and mentioned the plan, on which thefe Travels were undertaken and conducted. In reviewing the learned Author's preceding publication, we bestowed fome cenfure on particular parts+, but, at the fame time, we allowed their merit, in other refpects his defcription of the present state of the countries described, and the manners of the inhabitants, afforded us more entertainment than his account of the remains of antiquity found there.
We have now before us this Author's Travels into Greece, the promised fequel t to his former work; and we were pleased, on opening it, to find that (availing himself, perhaps, of our remark on his map in the Review for March laft, p. 171) he has now acquainted the Public from whence he reckons his meridians; but we yet remain uninformed what map Mr. Kitchin, his engraver ||, has corrected, and what are his latest authorities §.
The principal part of this volume is employed in the account and defcription of Attica, and its celebrated capital, Athens ; of the various revolutions of which, from its foundation to the prefent time, the Doctor has given a concise view, which cannot fail of proving an agreeable entertainment to the genera lity of his readers: at the fame time that it will afford, to all, a melancholy reflection on the inftability of human greatnefs, and of all carthly poffeffions. Empires, kingdoms, ftates,even knowledge and wifdom itself, with every art and refinement of life, how tranfitory, how perishable !-But all this is faid to us every day, and better faid ¶, by the fun-dial in our gardens: let us proceed, therefore, with our Traveller.
In defcribing modern Athens (now called Athini) our Author informs us that it is not inconfiderable, either in extent, or in
* See our account of Ionian Antiquities, Review, May, 1770; of Infcriptiones Antique, March, 1775; and, more particularly, of Travels in Afia Minor, March, 1776.
+ See Review, March, 1776, p. 171, &c.
+ lb. p. 169.
Ib. p. 171.
Dr. Chandler's prefent work is illuftrated by a folio map of part of Greece, and the Peloponnefus; and alfo by fix quarto plans and
Sic tranfit gloria mundi! the common motto.
the number of its inhabitants: lon. 53°. lat. 38°. 5. It enjoys a fine temperature, and a ferene fky. The air clear and wholefome, though not fo delicately foft as in lonia. The town ftands beneath the acropolis or citadel; not encompaffing the rock, as formerly, but fpreading into the plain, chiefly on the weft and north west.-The houses are mostly mean and fraggling; many with large areas or courts before them.They have water conveyed in channels from Mount Hymettus, and in the market place is a large fountain. The Turks have feveral mofques, and public baths. The Greeks have convents for men and women; with many churches, in which fervice is regularly performed; and befide thefe, they have numerous oratories, or chapels-frequented only on the aniversaries of the faints to whom they are dedicated.
Befide the more ftable antiquities, of which a particular account is given in the course of this work, many detached pieces, we are told, are found in the town, by the fountains, in the streets, the walls, the houfes, and churches. Among thefe are fragments of fculpture; a marble chair or two, which probably belonged to the gymnafia or theatres; a fun-dial at the catholicon or cathedral, infcribed with the name + of the maker; and at the archiepifcopal houfe, a very curious veffel of marble, used as a ciftern to receive water, but once ferving, it is likely, as a public ftandard, or measure. Many columns occur; with fome maimed ftatues; and pedestals, several with infcriptions, and almost buried in the earth. We faw a few mutilated berma. These were bufts, on long quadrangular bafes, the heads frequently of brafs, invented by the Athenians. At first they were made to reprefent only Hermes or Mercury, and defigned as guardians of the fepulchres, in which they were lodged; but afterward the houses, ftreets, and porticos of Athens were adorned with them, and rendered venerable by a multitude of portraits of illuftrious men and women, of heroes, and of gods.
The acropolis, afty, or citadel, was the city of Cecrops *. It is now a fortrefs, with a thick irregular wall, ftanding on the brink of precipices, and inclofing a large area, about twice as long as broad. Some portions of the ancient wall may be discovered on the outfide, particularly at the two extreme angles; and in many places it is patched with pieces of columns, and with marbles taken from the ruins.-The garrifon confifts of a few Turks, who refide there with their families, and are called by the Greeks Caftriani, or foldiers of the caftle. Their houfes overlook the city, plain, and gulf; but the fituation is as airy as pleasant, and attended with so many inconveniences,
+ Euclid, as we are informed.
* The reputed founder of Athens.
that those who have the option, prefer living below, when not on duty. The rock is lofty, abrupt, and inacceffible, except the front, which is toward the Piræus; and on that quarter is a mountainous ridge, within cannon shot.
The acropolis furnished a very ample field to the ancient virtuofi. It was filled with monuments of Athenian glory, and exhibited an amazing display of beauty, of opulence, and of art; each contending, as it were, for the fuperiority. It appeared as one entire offering to the Deity, furpaffing in excellence, and aftonishing in richness. Heliodorus, named Periegetes, the guide, had employed on it fifteen books. The curiofities, of yarious kinds, with the pictures, ftatues, and pieces of fculpture, were fo many, and fo remarkable, as to fupply Polemo Periegetes with matter for four volumes; and Strabo [who lived in the Auguftan age] affirms, that as many would be required in treating of other portions of Athens, and of Attica. In particular the number of ftatues was prodigious, Tiberius Nero, who was fond of images, plundered the acropolist, as well as Delphi and Olympia; yet Athens, and each of thefe places, had not fewer than 3000 remaining in the time of Pliny. Even Paufanias feems here to be diftreffed by the multiplicity of his fubject. But this banquet, as it were, of the fenfes, has long been withdrawn; and is now become like the tale of a vifion. The fpectator views with concern the marble ruins intermixed with mean flat-roofed cottages, and extant amid rubbish; the fad memorials of a nobler people; which, however, as vifible from the fea, fhould have introduced modern Athens to more early notice.
When we confider the long feries of years which has elapsed, and the variety of fortune which Athens has undergone, we may wonder that any portion of the old city has efcaped, and that the fite ftill furnishes an ample fund of curious entertainment,'-But we must not pretend to follow our Author in his furvey of all this interefting fcene; which is the subject of many chapters, and feems almoft inexhauftible. The fhort extract we have given, added to the tranfcripts in our former Articles, may fuffice to give our Readers an idea of Dr. Chandler's manner; and will, probably, excite many of them to purchafe the entire books.
After many curious and learned difquifitions relative to the history and antiquities of Athens; and an entertaining defcription of the prefent ftate of the city, and of modern Attica, with the manners, customs, and religion of the people, Turks, Greeks, Albanians, &c. our Author gives an account of many excurfions, both by land and fea, viz. to Mount Hymettus,
+ The Reader will bear in mind that here food the Parthenon, or great and rich temple of Minerva, built by Pericles.
to the plain of Marathon,-to Mount Pentele,- to Megara,to the ftraits and island of Salamis,- to the isthmus of Corinth, and many other places, celebrated by the poets and hiftorians
In one of their voyages Dr. C. and his party had an opportunity of feeing the Greek fishermen, at different times, practife the method of fmoothing rough water, lately mentioned by Dr. Franklin, by throwing oil upon it: fee Review, April, 1775, P. 325. The Doctor fpeaks of it as a common practice, in those feas, to render the ruffed furface tranquil, and the water pellucid; and takes notice, as Dr. Franklin had done before, that this property of oil was known to the ancients, as appears from Pliny and Plutarch.
It was on the 20th of August, 1765, that our Travellers fet fail from Smyrna, on their voyage to Athens; and on the 21st of June following, they embarked in order to return, according to directions received a few months b fore from the Committee of Dilettanti; and according to which, if it appeared fafe and practicable, they were to take their rout through the Morea, and by Corfu to Brindisi, and thence through Magna Grecia to Naples.
Saling fit to Egina, they next proceeded to the island of Calaurea; which is defcribed. From hence they paffed on to Epidaurus, vifited the grove of Efculapius, travelled to Argos, Nemea, and Corinth. The defcription of this laft-mentioned place forms a confiderable and pleafing part of the work: but we must not enlarge.
From Corinth they embark for Phocis, defcribing, en poffant, Anticyra, Stiris, and the monaftery of St. Luke; and here our Author entertains us with a fummary of the life of St. Luke of Stiris. We have alfo a brief defcription of Mount Helicon, the grove of the Mufes, the fountain Aganippe, &c. Arrive at Delphi.
After perufing an account of the famous Oracle of Delphi, the temple, its riches, decline, extinction, veftiges, infcriptions, the Caftalian ftream, Mount Parnaffus, &c. we again embark with our Travellers, and after a brief notice of Agium, Lepanto, &c. we arrive at Patræ; which is more particularly regarded. Here they inquired, but in vain, for ruins of the ancient cities of the Peloponnefus.
From hence we accompany our Author to Elis, and Olympia. Of the Temple of Jupiter, fo famous of old, nothing remains but the name.-Arrive at Zante.
Zante is a fmall island belonging to the Venetians; celebrated for its fruits and wine. Here our Travellers performed quarantine. Of the Corinthian grape, for which the island is noted, we have the following account;