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perfection of moral character which we cannot but afcribe to him, nor acting up to that idea of the most enlarged univerfal benevolence which feems to have actuated him.'
Philip. ii. 5-9. "Let this mind be in you, which was also in Chrift Fejus: who being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God: but made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a fervant, and was made in the likeness of men; and being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross: wherefore God bath highly exalted him, c."
It is commonly prefumed, that this paffage conveys a full proof of Chrift's pre-existence; and that the form of God here spoken of, relates to the fplendid condition of being, which he poffcffed before his appearance in the world, or was found in fashion as a man. An unprejudiced examination of the apostle's words will probably fhew, that he did not intend to convey any fuch thing by them.
He is obvicufly recommending humility and obedience to God by the example, of Christ; but thefe are the virtues of a creature, and cannot belong to God. This therefore befpeaks Chrift to have been the creature of God, though greatly favoured and beloved. His high rank, eminence, and dignity, from which he as it were defcended, is defcribed by his being in the form of God.
This form of God was fomething poffeffed by Christ when he was upon earth. For the apoftle fpeaks of it as belonging to Chrift Jefus, names which marked him out as a man amongst men. It is, moreover, no part of St. Paul's inquiry or concern here, who or what he had been in a former condition of being, fuppofing there had been any fuch. He would certainly point to what fell within the observation of beholders, and not to a part of the character of Jefus, which was unknown, and never explicitly mentioned by the apostle; I would fay, never mentioned at all. St. Paul alfo, as will foon be perceived, fpeaks of our Lord as laying afide this form of God while he was among men; not before he came among them. And the expreflions ufed by him, confirm this, ev pop bou vagy being in the form of God, as our tranflators have well rendered it; not imagŝas, having been, and it feems emphatical here; although the present time is fometimes put for the paft.
The term μon, forma, facies, figura, imports the outward form, face, refemblance of any thing or perfon, in oppofition to its real internal nature and conflitution. We are then to inquire, what might be that form or appearance of God which Chrift wore upon earth? Now this evidently confifted in thofe extraordinary endowments of a divine wifdom and power, which thone forth in him: by which he fpoke fo as never man fpoke, knew the hearts of men, healed the fick, reflored fight to the blind, raised the dead, multiplied a few loaves to the feeding of many thoufands; in short, re-. Tembled God, and not weak, frail, indigent man.
This was his great dignity. Next follows the account of his humility; he thought it no robbery to be equal with God, fays our English verfion. But this was no proof in the leaft of his humility; but the
contrary. Common fenfe therefore, and all just criticism, must approve the better interpretation given by the learned Dr Clarke, and by him fupported with great ability, and the teftimony of the most ancient Christian writers; viz. being in the form of God, he did not look on it as a prize to be hastily catched at to be like God; did not eagerly covet to be honoured for his Godlike powers; was not ambitious of difplaying them.
But his humility went farther. He made himself of no reputation, SOUTLY EXERWOE, emptied himself, laid afide all thefe high powers and prerogatives, as if he had not been poffeffed of them, fave where the glory of God and benefit of mankind called him forth to exert them, and avoided all praise and honour of men on that account.
And took (rather, leaving out the connecting particle, taking) upon him the form poen of a servant, or flave, who has nothing that he calls his own (ih. Son of Man hath not where to lay his head, Matth. viii. 20.) and whofe province it is to ferve others; (the Son of Man came not to be miniftered unto, but to minifter, Matth. xx. 2). Thus he laid afide the form of God, during his abode here below, and took the form of a fervant.
"And was made in the likeness of men; was or being in the likeness of men for St. Paul is not declaring what God made Christ, but how he conducted and demeaned himself; and is carrying on the defcription of his humility: and he obferves that he had nothing, he affumed nothing to diflinguish him from ordinary mortal men, being expofed to the fame fufferings, and all our finless infirmity; εν ομοιώματι ΑΝΘΡΩΠΩΝ γενόμενος, John i. 14. Rom. viii. 3, &c.
The apollle now defcends to the laft ftage of our Lord's humility: for he could fink no longer.
And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, &c. i. e. being in the circumstances and condition of a mortal man σχηματι ὡς ἈΝΘΡΩΠΟΣ, taking nothing upon him beyond the rate of weak, common mortals; although he had power to have refifted and overcome his enemies, he fubmitted to the most barbarous ufage, and a moft cruel infamous death, in obedience to God, John x. 11.
• Wherefore God hath highly exa.ted him.] His exaltation was not the reward of his humility in ftripping himfelf of any fuppofed dignity or happiness enjoyed in a former ftate of being; for the apoftle gives not the leaft intimation of any thing of that kind, and speaks only of his prefent conduct and behaviour. But it was the reward of his labours, and innocent and virtuous fufferings unto death in the cause of truth and righteousness.
There is a very beautiful, and, as appears to me, juft illustration of this much controverted paffage in Vol. III. p. 251, of the Theological Repofitory, which gives additional ftrength to the interpretation here adopted.'
[To be concluded in our next.]
ART. IV. A Second Voyage round the World, in the Years 1772, 73,
74, 75. By James Cook, Efq; Commander of his Majesty's Bark the RESOLUTION. Undertaken by Order of the King, and encouraged by a Parliamentary Grant of 4000l. Drawn up from authentic Papers, 4to. 6 s. 6d. Boards. Almon.
T is well known that the journals, or other writings, in
general, of all the people who made the voyage above-mentioned, were fecured by official authority, in order (as we fuppofe) not only to prevent imperfect or fallacious accounts from being cbtruded on the Public, but to conceal from other nations, fuch particular difcoveries as government might think it expedient to fecrete,-at leaft, for the prefent. The fame means were ufed with refpect to the former voyages on difcovery in the fouthern hemisphere, performed by Meffrs. Wallis, Byron, Carteret, and Cook, whofe papers were published by the late Dr. Hawkefworth; and yet, notwithstanding thefe precautions, feveral details of all the fe voyages have stolen abroad, exclufive of the accounts published, or to be published, by the appointment of the Admiralty.-Of Capt. Cook's laft, or fecond voyage (the particulars of which, by authority, have not yet ifiued from the prefs) a Journal was published about fix months ago; fee Review for April, p. 159: and here we have another performance, on the fame fubject, of fimilar origin, and unknown Authorship.
It is probable that the prefent, as well as the former narrative of Capt. Cook's fecond voyage, is compiled from some journal which was withheld when the writings of the feveral perfons on board, relative to the expedition, were supposed to have been all fealed up, for the infpection of the Admiralty-office: or, perhaps, if delivered up, it was returned to its original author, as containing nothing that might entitle it to detention.-Be this as it may, we fufpect that fome other author, more accuftomed to the bufinefs of book; making, hath been concerned in the publication; that fome embellifiment was deemed neceffary; and that the work hath, accordingly, undergone fuch improvement and transformation as might at once ferve to entertain and impofe on its readers-A meagre journal of nautical particulars-latitudes, longitudes, winds, bearings, diftances, currents, &c.-would have been dry, tedious, and uninterefting to the million, but a dash of the marvellous would give life and fpirit to the piece. To the marvellous, therefore, the induftrious and ingenious Editor has had recourfe; and poor injured
And yet he fcruples not to cry out, with Cicero, Ne quid falfi dicere audeat, ne quid veri non audeat ! But a nameless Writer may make what profeffions he pleafes. If he blushes, who fees it?
TRUTH is left to feek redress from the flow, though fure operation of TIME,-which "brings to light all the hidden things of darkness."
It is not to be fuppofed that any member of the fociety of Monthly Reviewers accompanied Capt. Cook, or Capt. Furneaux*, in their circumnavigation of the globe, in order to qualify himself for the task of criticifing the printed accounts, genuine or fpurious, of their voyage, which might happen to be published; nevertheless, we are enabled to decide on many particulars related in the narrative before us, by fuch authority as, we prefume, will not be difputed, even by the Editor himself:-on whom we are bound to pafs our cenfure, by that refpect which is due to the Public, and to our own characters as the vigilant and faithful detectors of every species of literary fraud and impofition.
The paffages contained in the following felection, are, on the authority of Capt. Cook, all pronounced to be false; and we give them without any other regard to method, than the fucceffive order in which they occur in the book.
P. 14. Defcribing the climate, and productions of the country, at the Cape of Good Hope, the Author fays, their cabbages and colly-flowers weigh from 30 to 40 pounds, their potatoes from 6 to 10, raifed from feed brought from Cyprus and Savoy.' This amplification reminds us of the monstrous cabbage and great pot in the jeft book.
P. 15. A midshipman of the Refolution plunges his hanger into the body of a failor belonging to the Adventure; and then runs a black man through with a fmall fword. The Author should have added, to complete the ftory, that Capt. Cook ordered the body of the failor to be falted and boiled, to eat, by way of pickled pork, with the great cabbages and colly-flowers mentioned in the preceding paragraph.
P. 19. Somewhere, between So. latitude 54 and 59, faw an island of ice, on which were hundreds of penguins, and fome animal refembling a man.' There is no refemblance of truth in this latter circumftance.
P. 20. Dreadful alarm of fire on board the Resolution, in the forefail room, directly over the magazine; but never before beard of by the Captain.
P. 24. Heard bitter cries in the night,' (at New Zealand) but they were heard by the Author only.
P. 25. Part of the fhip's crew being afhore, they were alarmed with a voice from the fhip, "Come on board, come
* Capt. Cook's confort, in the Adventure, which feparated from the Refolution, in a hard gale, foon after their arrival at New Zealand.
on board, the Indians are coming down." This voice, too, was heard only by the Author: whose auricular powers feem to have exc eded those of every other man that accompanied him in the voyage!
P. 37, 38. Two Indians fighting a duel, one kills the other, and broils him for Jupper. What kind of fupper does the inventor of this horrid ftory deserve?
P. 42. A story about Capt. Cook's bargaining with the Otaheiteans for a fupply of hogs, for the ship's company;' equally fabulous.
P. 43. A ditto, concerning a quarrel with the Otaheiteans. P. 50. At the island of Afterdam, an Indian woman killed by a fhot from the pinnace; but ftill alive and merry, for ought the author of this story knows to the contrary: her hurt was of nearly the confequence of a flea-bite.
Ibid. Some of the natives on board ftole the ship's logbook, and fix others out of the master's cabbin. They were not miffed till the thief was got into his canoe, and had put off. Our pinnace purfued him, and as foon as it came along fide of the canoe, the Indian jumped into the fea, dived like a fish, and came up again at a confiderable diftance from the pinnace; but one of the feamen took the boat hook, hooked him by the belly, and tore out all his entrails, then left him, and brought the miffing books on board.' Another fica bite, finely embellifhed, indeed! but with as little regard to truth as that other tale, in the fame page, where the embellifher affirms that the marines landed, and fired upon the natives, many of whom were killed and wounded: whereas, if our authority is to be credited, the marines never fired a shot on the island.
P. 64. At the iflands called the Marquefas, April 9, this morning a little fquadron of failing canoes came to view the hip. Among them were two canoes, on board of which two of the Indian chiefs or kings were embarked. They came along-fide the fhip, drew up in line of battle, and performed a kind of manual exercife, at the command of a man who stood erect in the middle of a canoe. This naval review, with which thefe Indian admirals attempted to entertain our officers, was divided into feveral parts. They performed their evolutions with great exactness, changed their difpofitions frequently, and with a furprifing dexterity, and between each divifion an old man founded a conch, which regulated all their motions. The men in the canoes that paffed in review were all armed with fpears after it was over they fung a fhort fong and came on board. Our officers were exceedingly diverted with this un. common exhibition, in which the feveral methods of attack and defence, line of battle a-head and abreaft, were difplayed with great skill and judgment, and marked a discipline among them not unworthy the ob