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honourable an appellation it by no means merits, fince it is ill adapted to scientific matters, and for that reafon never employed by the mathematician; and is utterly incapable of affifting us in our researches into nature. Shall we then pronounce it the science of logomachy, or in plain English, the art of fighting with words, and about words? And in this wordy warfare, fhall we fay that the rules of fyllogizing are the tactics? This would certainly hit the matter more nearly; but I know not how it happens, that to call any thing logomachy or altercation, would be confidered as giving bad names; and when a good ufe may be made of an invention, it seems unreafonable to fix an odious name upon it, which ought only to difcriminate the abufe. I fhall therefore only title it, the fcholaftic art of difputation. It is the fchoolmens fcience of defence.
When all erudition confifted more in an acquaintance with words, and an addrefs in ufing them, than in the knowledge of things, dexterity in this exercitation conferred as much luftre on the fcholar, as agility in the tilts and tournaments added glory to the knight. In proportion as the attention of mankind has been drawn off to the study of nature, the honours of this contentious art have faded, and it is now almoft forgotten. There is no reafon to wifh its revival, as eloquence feems to have been very little benefited by it, and philofophy ftill lefs. Nay, there is but too good reafon to affirm, that there are two evils at least which it has gendered. These are, first, an itch of difputing on every fubject, however uncontrovertible; the other, a fort of philofophic pride, which will not permit us to think, that we believe any thing, even a felf evident principle, without a previous reafon or argument. In order to gratify this paffion, we invariably recur to words, and are at immenfe pains to lose ourselves in clouds of our own raifing. We imagine we are advancing and making wonderful progrefs, while the mift of words in which we have involved our intellects, hinders us from difcerning that we are moving in a circle all the time.'
Having confidered the fources from which eloquence draws its materials, our Author advances to the the confideration of feveral incidental circumftances worthy of the orator's attention, in the choice and management of his materials, respecting his audience and himself. He evinces the importance of adapting the difcourfe to the understandings of the hearers; prefenting vivid images to the fancy; difpofing ideas in regular order, to affift the memory; and whofe perfuafion is the object, exciting fome defire or paffion in the hearers. This laft effect, it is remarked, is principally produced by communicating lively ideas to the mind; and the circumftances which
chiefly conduce to this end are shown to be, probability, plaufibility, importance, proximity of time, connection of place, relation of the actors or fufferers to the hearers or speaker, interest of the hearers or speaker in the confequences. The ufe which the orator may make of these circumftances, and of particular incidents or fituations refpecting his audience or himfelf, to command the attention and intereft the heart, is clearly pointed out.
The different kinds of public fpeaking in ufe among the moderns, at the bar, in the fenate, and from the pulpit, are next compared, under the feveral heads of fpeaker, hearer, fubject, occafion, and end, with a view to afcertain their different advantages in respect of eloquence. Here we meet with many judicious obfervations on the character and office of a preacher, which furnish a fatisfactory and seasonable apology for a clafs of men, whofe labours are often treated with undeferved ridicule and contempt.
Upon the whole of the comparison I have ftated, it appears manifeft (fays our Author) that, in moft of the particulars above enumerated, the preacher labours under a great difadvantage. He hath himself a more delicate part to perform than either the pleader or the fenator, and a character to maintain, which is much more eafily injured. The auditors, though rarely fo accomplished as to require the fame accuracy of compofition, or acuteness in reasoning, as may be expected in the other two, are more various in age, rank, taste, inclinations, fentiments, prejudices, to which he muft accommodate himself. And if he derive fome advantages from the richness, the variety, and the nobleness of the principles, motives, and arguments, with which his fubject furnishes him, he derives alfo fome inconveniences from this circumftance, that almost the only engine by which he can operate on the paffions of his hearers, is the exhibition of abstract qualities, virtues, and vices; whereas that chiefly employed by other orators, is the exhibition of real perfons, the virtuous and the vicious. Nor are the occafions of his addreffes to the people equally fitted with those of the senator and the pleader, for exciting their curiofity and rivetting their attention. And finally, the task affigned him, the effect which he ought ever to have in view, is fo great, fo important, fo durable, as feems to bid defiance to the ftrongest efforts of oratorical genius. Nothing is more common than for people, I fuppofe without reflecting, to exprefs their wonder, that there is fo little eloquence amongst our preachers, and that fo little fuccefs attends their preaching. As to the last, their success, it is a matter not to be afcertained with fo much precision, as fome appear fondly to imagine. The evil prevented, as well as the good promoted, oaght here, in all justice, to come into the
reckoning. And what that may be, it is impoffible in any fuppofed circumftances to determine. As to the first, their eloquence, I acknowledge, that, for my own part, confidering how rare the talent is among men in general, confidering all the difadvantages preachers labour under, not only thofe above enumerated, but others, arifing from their different fitua tions, particularly confidering the frequency of this exercise, together with the other duties of their office, to which the fixed paftors are obliged, I have been of a long time more difpofed to wonder, that we hear fo many inftructive and even eloquent fermons, than that we hear fo few.'
The first part of this work concludes with an ingenious but digreffive effay, on the caufe of the pleafure which we receive from the reprefentation of objects of diftrefs; in which, after having examined the feveral hypothefes which other writers have offered for the folution of this difficulty, the Author propofes and maintains his own; which is, that pity being not a fimple paffion, but a compound of fympathy, general benevo lence, and particular attachment, when the object of distress is exhibited in a light adapted to excite thefe latter feelings in a high degree, the pleafing emotions will prevail over the painful, and the effect will be on the whole agreeable.
ART. VII. Interefting Letters of Pope Clement XIV. (Ganganelli). To which are prefixed Anecdotes of his Life. Translated from the French Edition published at Paris by Lottin, Jun. 12mo. 2 Vols. 6 s. bound. Becket.
N our laft Appendix, Art. III. we fufficiently enlarged on the Character of the late worthy Pope, and on the merit and authenticity of thefe Letters. A further extract or two will not only tend to gratify the curiofity of the Public, but serve as a fpecimen of the tranflation now offered to the English Reader.
We have already feen in Ganganelli, the good man and the fcholar; let us now behold, in him, the man of the world, the polite philofopher, and the lively correfpondent. The following letter recommends the Tour of Italy to the Abbé Ferghen.
• You cannot do better to divert yourself from your troubles and embaraffments than to vifit Italy. Every well informed man owes an homage to this country, fo defervedly boafted of; and it will give me inexpreffible fatisfaction to fee you here.
• You will inftantly fee the great bulwarks given us by Nature in the Alps and Appenines, which feparate us from France, and have made them give us the name of Tramontanes. They are a majestic range of mountains, which ferve as a frame to the magnificent picture within them.
Torrents, rivulets, and rivers, without reckoning the feas, are objects which present the most curious and interefling points of view to foreigners, and efpecially to painters. Nothing can be more agreeable than the most fertile foil in the finest climate, every where
interfected with ftreams of running water, and every where peopled with villages, or ornamented with fuperb cities.-Such a country is Italy!
If agriculture was held in equal efteem with architecture;-if the country was not divided into fuch a number of governments, all of different forms, and almost all weak, and of little extent; mifery would not be found by the fide of magnificence, and industry with out activity; but unfortunately we are more engaged in the embellishment of cities, than in the culture of the country; and unculti vated lands every where reproach the idleness of the people.
If you begin your route at Venice, you will see a city very fin gular from its fituation;-it is precisely a great fhip refting upon the waters, and which cannot be approached but by boats.
The fingularity of its fituation is not the only thing that will furprise you. The inhabitants in mafque for four or five months in the year;-the laws of a defpotic government, which allow the greatest liberty in their amufements; the rights of a fovereign without authority; the customs of a people who dread even his fhadow, and yet enjoy the greatest tranquillity; form inconfiftencies, which in a very extraordinary manner muft affect foreigners. There is fcarcely a Venetian who is not eloquent ;-collections have been made of the bons mots of their Gondoliers, replete with true Attic falt.
Ferrara difplays a vaft and beautiful folitude within its walls, almost as filent as the tomb of Ariosto, who was buried there.
• Bologna presents another kind of picture: there the Sciences are familiar even to the fair fex, who appear with dignity in the schools and academies, and have trophies erected to them daily. A thoufand different paintings will gratify your mind and eyes, and the converfation of the inhabitants will delight you.
You will then pafs through a multitude of fmall towns, in the fpace of more than a hundred leagues, each of which has its Theatre, its Caffin (a rendezvous for the nobility), a man of learning, or fome Poet, who employ themselves according to their fancy, or their leisure.
• You will visit Loretto, made famous by the great concourse of pilgrims from other countries, and the treasures with which the church is magnificently enriched.
• You will then defcry Rome, which may be seen a thousand years, and always with new pleasure. This city, fituated upon feven hills which the ancients called the Seven Mistresses of the World, feems to command the univerfe, and boldly to fay to mankind, that the is the Queen, and the Chief.
You will call to mind the ancient Romans, the remembrance of whom can never be effaced, on cafting an eye on the famous Tiber, which has been so often mentioned, and which has been fo frequently fwelled by their own blood, and the blood of their enemies.
You will be in extacy at the fight of St. Peter's, which connoiffeurs fay is the wonder of the world, being infinitely fuperior to the St. Sophia at Conftantinople, St. Paul s at London, or even the Temple of Solomon.
It is a pile which extends in proportion as you go over it, where every thing is immenfe, yet appears of an ordinary fize. The paint
ings are exquifite, the monumental fculptures breathe, and you will believe that you fee the New Jerufalem come down from Heaven, which St. John fpeaks of in the Revelations.
'You will find, both in the great, and in the detail, of the Vatican, which was erected on the ruins of falfe oracles, beauties of every kind that will tire your eyes, while they at the fame time charm you. Here Raphael and Michael Angelo, fometimes in a fublime, fometimes in a pathetic manner, have displayed the matterpieces of their genius. by expreffing in the most lively language the whole energy of their fouls ;--and here the fcience and genius of all the writers in the world are depofited, in the multitude of works which compofe that rich and immenfe library.
Churches, palaces, public fquares, pyramids, obelifks, pillars, galleries, grand fronts of buildings, theatres, fountains, gardens, views, all, all will declare to you that you are at Rome; and every thing will attach you to it, as to the city, which of all others has been univerfally admired. You will not meet with that French elegance which prefers the beautiful to the fublime; but you will be amply recompenfed by thofe ftriking views that every infant muit excite your admiration.
Laftly, in all the figures of painting or fculpture, both ancient and modern, you will fee a new creation, and believe it animated. The Academy of Painting, filled with French ftudents, will thew you fome who are deftined to become great mafters in their profeflion, and who by coming to fludy here, do honour to Italy.
You will admire the grandeur and fimplicity of the head of the Church, the fervant of fervants in the order of humility, and the first of men in the eyes of the faithful. The cardinals who furround him, will reprefent to you the twenty four old men who furround the throne of the Lamb, modeft in their manners, and instructive by their morals.
But this magnificent profpect will terminate with a view of groupes of Mendicants, whom Rome improperly fupports, by be. rowing mifapplied charity, inflead of employing thein in ufeful labours: thus it is that the thorn is feen with the rofe, and vice too frequently by the fide of virtue.
But if you wish to fee Rome in all her fplendour, endeavour to be there by the feat of St. Peter. The illumination of the church begins with a gentle light, which you will easily mistake for the reflection of the fetting fun: it then fends forth fome pieces of beautiful architecture, and afterwards finishes with waving flames, which make a moving picture, that lats till day break. All this is at tended with double fireworks, the fplendour of which is fo bright, that you would think the liars had been plucked from heaven, and barkt upon the earth.
⚫ I do not mention to you the ftrange metamorphofts which has placed the Order of St. Francis even in the Capitol, and has produced a new Rome from the ruins of the old; to fhew the world that Christianity is truly the work of God, and that he has fubdued the molt famous conquerors to establish it in the very centre of their poffeffions. If the modern Romans do not appear warlike, it is becaufe the nature of their government does not infpire them with vaREV. Oct. 1776. X