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Then he proceeds to tell what happened in confequence of these omens, and with the subject he changes the phraseology, Ergo inter fefe paribus, &c. v. 489. Then he takes another figure,
Nec fuit indignum fuperis, &c.
Scilicet et tempus veniet, &c.
• And fo he goes on (for it would be tedious to mention more particulars) to the end of the book, diversifying and adorning his compofition by figures which have no name, but of which every reader of tafte muft feel the effect, though he do not perhaps know the cause.'
And fo goes our Author on, through feveral other parts of the Georgics, and through feveral paffages in Armstrong's poem on Health, to fhew that even these cofter-monger days have produced at least one poet that deferves to be quoted as a model of good compofition.' And fo he might have gone on for ever, through all the works of the ancients and moderns both good and bad, without the leaft expence of thought to himself: but it was fortunate for his readers that he recollected in time that it would be tedious to mention more particulars.
In treating of the feveral kinds of ftyle, Lord M. first follows the indeterminate and unphilofophical divifion of the ancients into the fimple, the high, and the middle, giving examples of each, chiefly from the ancient writers. He then speaks of style under the feveral heads of the fublime, the ludicrous, the witty, the humourous; the converfation, the didactic, and the hiftorical and concludes with earneftly recommending the Greek models to the ftudy and imitation of modern writers. On thefe topics we meet with feveral juft obfervations, but with little that is new or peculiarly ftriking; and the whole has a mifcellaneous and immethodical appearance.
The Author's general cenfure of the ftyle of the moderns, as formed upon the model of Tacitus and Seneca among the ancients, or as a fervile imitation of the French manner, though fupported with much learned labour, fails in two very material particulars it doth not appear in fact that this ftyle is fo much in vogue as he reprefents; and it is not proved that this ftyle is in all cafes faulty. In thofe fpecies of writing which require either fimplicity of language, or the flowing and diverfified period, it would not be difficult to find among modern writers many fuccefsful examples: and it might easily be fhewn, notwithstanding all that our Author has advanced, that in many kinds of compofition, ornament and antithefis are preferable to fimplicity. We acknowledge, however, that there is fome ground for his remarks, in the particular inftance of the
biftorical ftyle at prefent in ufe. What he fays on this head
• The narrative of an hiftorian ought, in my apprehenfion, to be plain and fimple, at least not rhetorical, nor adapted to move the paffions or inflame the imagination by epithets, with which we fee the ftyle of modern hiftory is loaded, or by defcriptions fo particular as to be poetical painting, many of which we fee in fome hiftories that have a great vogue among us. Such a manner of writing history makes an intelligent reader fufpect that it is little better than a novel; and, if he has curiofity enough to look into the original authors and records from which it fhould have been compiled, he will, I believe, in moft cafes, find that this fufpicion is not ill founded; and he will have this further fatisfaction for his trouble, that, by reading but one of the best of those original authors, he will learn more of the facts, and, what is of greater confequence, more of the manners and opinions of the age, than by reading twenty compilements. I would therefore advise our compilers of hiftory, if they will not study the models of the historic style which the ancients have left us, at leaft to imitate the fimplicity of Dean Swift's ftyle in his Gulliver's Travels, and to endeavour to give as much the appearance of credibility to what truth they relate as he has given to his monftrous fictions; not that I would be understood to recommend the ftyle of those travels as a pattern for history, for which it never was intended, being indeed an excellent imitation of the narrative of a failor, but wanting that gravity, dignity, and ornament which the hiftorical ftyle requires. For the fubject being the great affairs of a nation, the style ought to be fuitable. The words, therefore, fhould be well chofen, and the best in common use, and they fhould be put together with an agreeable compofition. For hiftory ought not to be written in fhort detached fentences, after the manner of Salluft or Tacitus; neither should it be rounded or conftricted into periods like those of an oration; but the compofition fhould be loofer, and of a more eafy and natural flow. These are the rules laid down by ancient critics, by which they tell us, the ftyle of hiftorical narrative should be framed; for, as to the fpeeches, they belong to a different kind of compofition, namely, the rhetorical; and there are no other rules at this day, fo far as I know, by which we can judge of the ftyle of hiftory. If, therefore, we find a hiftory, of which the ftyle is loaded with metaphors and epithets, embellished with poetical descriptions, the compofition either too much rounded into periods, or altogether disjointed or unconnected; whatever praise or reputation fuch hiftories may acquire, we are fure they are not according to the claffical ftandard,'
Though we are certain that neither our praife nor cen fure can affect the Author, we muft, in juftice to ourselves and our Readers, declare it to be our opinion, that true tafte will receive little improvement from this work. An accurate investigation of the principles of criticism, and a perfect digeft of its rules, are only to be expected from the united efforts of learning, genius, and philofophy.
ART. IV. Travels through France and Spain, in the Years 1770 and 1771. In which is particularly minuted the prefent State of thofe Countries, refpecting Agriculture, Population, Manufactures, &c. By Jofeph Marshall, Efq; 8vo. Vol. IV. 6s. Corral.
N the Review for June 1772, we introduced to the notice of our Readers Three volumes of Travels, by a Jofeph Marshall, Efq; and we finished our account of the work, in the following month;-not without a violent fufpicion that we had been converfing with a non-entity: and that the name of Squire Marshall had been affumed by fome book-making genius, who might have good reafons, notwithstanding his genius, for thinking any name better, to go to market with, than his own. "I do not like," faid A- Mr, one day, when he was bargaining for a new piece, “ a book without the Author's name to it." "Give me ten guineas more, faid Mr. Anonymous, and I will revise the copy, and put my name to it." "That would make the matter ftill worfe, replied the literary accoucheur: I would fooner pay the difference, to keep your name concealed." The debate ended in the immediate coinage of a new Author; which answered every objection.
Whether or not Jofeph Marshall, Efq; owes his existence to fome fuch plastic intercourfe between a maker and a feller of books, is ftill matter of enquiry with thofe curious readers who love to make a little acquaintance with the writer as well as the writing. We recollect that a Correfpondent once fent us his reafons for concluding Mr. Marthall to be only one of the ideal gentlemen of whom we have been talking. We remember, too, that, on this occafion, a friend of ours made particular enquiry of Mr. Almon, who published the three volumes of Marfhali's Travels,' concerning the existence, actual, perfonal, and nominal, of the Author: and the following account of this matter was accordingly given at the end of the Review for September 1772: viz.
"That the publisher of the work in queftion received the MS. from a gentleman who appeared to act as the Author's friend; and who informed Mr. Almon that the Author was at that time abroad, on account of his health; that Mr. Almon, in about a month after, received, per poft, from Geneva, a
receipt for the copy-money, in the fame hand-writing with the copy itself; that Mr. Marthall was a man of property; and that his eftate lies at Budfwell, in Northamptonshire."
With this affurance we were as well fatisfied as the nature of the enquiry would admit; and, fome time afterward, we obferved in the news-papers, an account of the death of “ Jofeph Marshall, Efq; Author of the Travels, &c." which account, if true, affords (as a grave writer expreffes it) a strong prefumption that he once lived.
Whether or not the volume now before us is a real continuation of the above-mentioned work, in three volumes, is a point that refts, for the prefent, folely on the credit due to the title-page of the book; no farther mention of the Author, or reference to the former publication occurring, either by way of preface, advertisement, or otherwife. This, together with the change of the publisher, looks a little doubtfully; and the fufpicion does not wear off on perufal of the volume, which, in every page, reminds us of the unwearied industry of the famous Mr. Arthur Young; whofe manner of journalizing an agricul tural ramble is here reflected, as exactly as a man's" natural face," beheld" in a glass."
But whether we are indebted for this work to the pen of a Marshall, a Young, a Daniel De Foe, or a Dr. Hill, if it gives us a tolerably true account of the state of husbandry, agriculture, population, &c. in the countries defcribed (as we are inclined to believe it does) it cannot fail of affording many ufeful hints to farmers, and farming gentlemen; as the methods of practice, and the recital of improvements form a very confiderable variety, and are, throughout, illuftrated by the requifite eftimates and calculations: but of the veracity of these, it is impoffible for a Reviewer to pronounce.
Befide the information refpecting almost every point of rural œconomics, &c. the detail of which forms, as we guess, about nine-tenths of the volume before us, the Writer hath introduced fuch anecdotes, narratives, defcriptions, and reflections, relative to the experienced felicity of a well-fpent country life, as may prove both entertaining and useful to (we would hope) many Readers. The hiftory, in particular, of M. de la Place, his happy retirement, and his improvements in the culture of wafte lands, is fo very pleafing, and fo interefting a part of the work, that were it not much too long for an extract, we should gladly have tranfcribed it into our own mifcellany.-The extracts formerly given, are fufficient for specimens.
We do not mean the dead Daniel, or the dead Doctor; but any of their book-making-race; which is wonderfully numerous.
ART. V. An Hiftory of the Island of Anglefey, from its first Invafum by the Romans, until finally acceded to the Crown of England: Together with a diftinct Description of the Towns, Harbours, Villages, and other remarkable Places in it; and of several Antiquities relating thereto, never before made public. Serving as a Supplement to Rowland's Mona Antiqua Reftaurata. To which are also added, Memoirs of Owen Glendowr: Who, in the Reign of Henry IV. claimed the Principality of Wales, as Heir to Llewelin latt Prince thereof; tranfcribed from a Manuscript in the Library of Jefus College, Oxford. To which are fubjoined,
Notes hiftorical and illuftrative. The Whole collected from authentic Remains. 4to. 3 s. fewed. Dodfley. 1775.
HE Author has given fo particular an account of the nature of his work in the above title, that it is unneceffary for us to enlarge on the fubject.
Though this treatife will not be interefting to fome readers, to many others it will prove amufing; and probably be very acceptable to the lovers of antiquity. Travellers who make this ifland in their way to and from Ireland may find this book an agreeable companion. The Writer aims, he fays, at concifenefs and perfpicuity. He has not always, as he should have done, tranflated his Welch and Latin quotations. To the memoirs of Owen Glendowr is added a Welch poem in his praise written by Graffyth Llwyd, his poet-laureat, in the year 1400. The verfion of this poem may entertain fome of our Readers; we fhall therefore infert it as a fpecimen of what may be called ancient Cambrian poetry :
Thou delightful eagle, Owain, with thy bright shining helmet-generous in beftowing riches-thou art the brave and ever-conquering fon' of Gruffydd Tychan of noble renown-thou art the bulwark-the graceful and liberal poffeffor of the vale of Dyfrdwy a great and rapid ftream: on a night, fometime ago, we were jovial together quaffing bumpers of mead, I was conjured to vifit thee often and resort to thy royal palace, where I used to drink wine out of thy hand; by drinking mead I became difrefpectful, and my behaviour fuited not my breeding. Thou illuftrious lord, that art equal to nine heroes, permit me to fay hay to thy departure, for in the hour thou parteft with me, preparing calamities for Britain, longing (in a dreadful conflict) almoft brought me to my grave on thy account. The remembrance of thee, thou golden beam, never paffed over me without weeping; my tears ran down my wrinkled cheeks, and watered my face like fhowers of rain, when my forrows were at the height, thou fon of a generous father. I heard from the mouth of a meffenger (for thou shalt ever have the grace of God, and thy eftate entire) that thou my moft illuftrious lord hadst in battle a generous heart; and hadft found an omen in