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his apoftles, and to which he appropriates the term facra cœna, differed, both in its nature and defign, from that which is a perpetual inftitution in the Chriftian church; and which he calls facramentum cana. If we understand him right, his idea of the former correfponds to, or at least very much resembles, that of the Lutherans ; whilst he confiders the latter as a meer memorial, or monument of the event to which it immediately refers. By this distinction, which he labours to juftify and fupport, he hopes to unite the contending parties of Chriftians; his views are laudable, but we much doubt his fuccefs.
Art. 35. A Sketch of the Oeconomy of Divine Providence, with reSpect to Religion among Mankind. By W. Willers. 8vo. 6 d.
This small treatise affords an agreeable and edifying view of the difpenfations of heaven with refpect to the human race, particularly in regard to religion and falvation. The worthy Author writes in a rational manner, unbiaffed by modes and forms of man's device, but firmly attached to the revelation given us in the Bible, and to whatever appears to be fcripture truth. His very brief view of the conomy of Divine Providence tends to excite the Reader to a diligent improvement of those advantages, which are enjoyed under the Chriftian difpenfation. He enters not into difpute, but in a little poftfcript just takes notice of the learned and ingenious Author of Sketches on Man; and fpeaking of fome who oppose Christianity he remarks that Thefe ingenious writers have their fyftem of divinity, and may be biaffed thereby, as well as other men; and their fyftem is defliny, the fame, he adds, with that which the Affembly's catechifm formerly adopted, viz. that God ordained from all eternity whatsoever fhould come to pafs.' Divines, we apprehend, will hardly agree to this account; and there certainly is a very great difference between destiny or fate (which Heathen writers feem to have talked of as fuperior even to the Gods themselves) and the appointments of a BEING, INFINITE in wifdom and goodness. Art. 36. H KAINH AIA@HKH. The New Teftament, collated with the most approved Manufcripts; with felect Notes in English, Critical and Explanatory; and References to thofe Authors who have beft illustrated the Sacred Writings. To which are added a Catalogue of the principal Editions of the Greek Testament, and a Lift of the moft efteemed Commentators and Critics. By E. Harwood, D. D. 12mo. 2 Vols. 7 s. bound. Johnfon 1776.
Doctor H. informs us in his preface, that the principal authorities to which he has had recourfe in preparing this new edition, are the Cambridge manufcript of the Four Gofpels and of the Acts of the Apoftles, bequeathed by Beza to that univerfity, and the Clermont copy of St. Paul's Epiftles. He prefers thefe, because in his judg ment they are fuperior both in age and accuracy to the Alexandrian manufeript preferved in the British Mufæum: but in all cafes of various readings, or where either of the former copies was mutilated and defective, he has confulted other manufcripts, and particularly the Alexandrian. And he folemnly profeffes, that he has not inferted a fingle word in this edition, which is not fupported by the best ma
nufcripts; and that he has not altered a fingle word, or the minuteft particle to ferve any caufe, or to fupport any favourite fyftem: however, he has thought proper in fome paffages to difcard the commonly received reading, and to fubftitute another in the text, fupported, as he apprehends, by better authorities: and he refers the Reader for the reafons of fuch alteration to a third volume of his Ixtroduction to the New Teftament, speedily to be published: but furely fome notice fhould have been given in the margin of every variation of this kind. The marginal notes are partly the Editor's own, and partly a felection from other writers, to whom the Reader is referred; and in many instances they are a valuable addition to the text. This edition is printed on a neat type, and feems to be carefully revised.
In the Editor's annexed catalogue of approved commentators, harmonizers, &c. we are furprised to find, that he has omitted Dr. Doddridge.
Art. 37. A Second Differtation on Heretical Opinions; fhewing the Nature of Herefy; in what refpect Errors in Religion may be innocent or finful; the Caufes from whence they generally proceed; the Excufes often alledged by falfe Chriftians and avowed Unbelievers. Concluding with an Addrefs to the Young, or Students in the Univerfity. By John Rawlins, M. A. Rector of Leigh in Worcestershire, Minister of Badfey and Wickamford, and Chaplain to the Right Honourable Lord Archer. 8vo. 2s. Oxford, printed. London, fold by Rivington. 1776.
For an account of the first differtation we must refer our Readers to our Rev. vol. xlvii. p. 327. It is there remarked, that what this Writer's notions of error and herefy arc, and in what respects he thought them innocent or finful, we could not exactly determine from that performance, but might expect fome farther light from his next publication. We wish to speak with all poffible candour on the subject, but must acknowledge that we cannot yet conclude with any certainty from this work what particular fentiments or opinions are to be efteemed erroneous or heretical. Herely is reprefented as fomewhat very dreadful, feveral causes of it are affigned, fome circumftances are mentioned, which may alleviate error, or render it nearly innocent, but whether it confifts in a departure from the words of fcripture, or from the fenfe which a particular church, or fet of men have affixed to those words, we are left unable to determine. The fecond section, indeed, profeffes to explain the nature of herefy, and tells us, that
in its primary fignification, it is not a practical, but a speculative error,' and afterwards we are informed, that it is not a fimple error of the understanding only, but its malignity confifts in an obftinate and determined perverfenefs of the will. It is in this latter sense only, we fuppofe, that herefy can be confidered as implying any thing criminal; yet we are ready to fear that our Author's enlarging fo much on the fubject, may lead fome perfons to pass fuch a cenfure on many, who have the moft candid and ingenuous minds, but cannot agree to every thing which might even in a Proteftant church be given out as orthodox.
The tenth fection of this pamphlet is called a sketch of fome vain and incoherent opinions patronized by modern beretics and unbelievers. But though heretics are brought into the title of this fection,
the opinions cenfured are only those which are advanced by Deiftical writers, fuch as Chubb, Blount,* Hume, &c. while room is left to bring this charge of herefy against others who do believe the gospel. The Author may explain himself more clearly in a third differtation, which is yet to appear, and is to fhew that the fences which the church of England has raised against the inroad of errors in religion, are formed with wifdom, and moderation.'
Mr. Rawlins difcovers good fenfe and learning.-His work tends to infpire young Readers, to whom it is principally addreffed, with an awful fenfe of the danger of herefy-but before we advance any farther opinion of it, let us wait for his next publication. A great part of this and the former differtation, appears to have been preached before the univerfity, in four difcourfes. The two laft fections in this work are immediately addreffed to the younger ftudents; and here much seasonable and judicious advice is adminiftered. Among other things, the ftudy of ecclefiaftical history is recommended; which if they impartially and attentively pursue, they will probably be convinced, that the brand of herefy has been affixed by different parties on their opponents, each in their turn, and that no man who really feeks after truth, or who loves God and his word, can in a criminal fenfe, or in the fcripture sense, be a heretic, though he may not be able to agree to fome human, or established explications of the facred writings.
Art. 38. Divine Worship due to the whole Bleffed Trinity, the Father, Son, and the Holy Spirit, as being one and the fame God: Proved from Scripture and Antiquity: As that Doctrine is taught in the Articles, and the Practice of it enjoined in the Liturgy of the Church of England. Among which are interfperfed, Doctor Samuel Clarke's Cenfures of Arians, Socinians, &c. with divers Citations from his Writings to fhew what Conceffions he made, and what near Advances to the true Catholic Faith. 8vo. Rivington. 1776.
This Author writes with mildness and good fenfe. The argu ments he propofes, are fuch as have been repeatedly confidered. He frequently introduces Dr. Clarke, as affording fupport to that doctrine he wished to defend: from fome paffages we should almost think that this Writer and Dr. Clarke agreed in their fentiments on the fubject. As when we read that Chrift is the Son of God-by an ineffable derivation,' and again, there is, we agree, a pofteriority of order in the Son and Holy Spirit, with reference to their emanation and extraction,' and further, it will always be our duty principally, and in the first place, to make our fupplications and prayers, to offer up our praifes and thanksgivings, and to render all poffible honour and adoration to God the Father, as head and fountain of the Godhead.' But there are other expreflions in the pamphlet to which Dr. Clarke could not have affented. We may, however, obferve, that perfons, who are ferious and fincere, in what they fay on difputed points, often come much nearer to thofe who feem to differ from them, than they are ready to apprehend. Thofe who are efteemed mot orthodox, we fuppofe, would allow of the above, expressions, which, nevertheless, convey fome ideas of inferiority,
which in another view they would be hardly willing to admit. The appendix, recommending the pra&ice of catechizing, chiefly confifts of extracts from the writings of fome of our former bishops. Art. 39. The true Sonship of Christ invefligated. And his Perfon, Dignity, and Offices explained and confirmed from the Sacred Scriptures. By a Clergyman. 12mo. 2 s. Dilly. 1776.
The great aim of this writer, we are told, is to fhew, that the general, unanimous, and confiftent voice of Revelation, declares our Saviour to be Son of God, as he is God-man, begotten of the Father, by the unition of the Divine Word with human nature in his incarnation.' The greatest part of the volume, it is also faid, has been delivered to a numerous congregation, who were univerfally fatisfied that the explication given of this matter is the fcriptural and just one. Seme of the moft judicious and learned of his brethren, the Author farther adds, to whom his work has been fubmitted, have urged the publication of it, as what might be of real fervice to the interefts of Chriftianity. Perhaps it may be fo; and lovers of truth and goodness will with fuccefs to whatever really contributes to fo valuable an end. But we do not fee the great tendency of this performance to fuch a purpose. The incarnation of Jefus the Saviour is furely hidden and myfterious. How fruitless then must be our inquiries about it! Indeed it has appeared to us, that fome expreffions and reafonings, which have been used on these subjects, are little fhort of prophane. And when we reflect on the malignant fpirit, the hatred and perfecutions which have been excited in the Chriftian world by words and phrafes relating to them; we are concerned to fee any thing which may feem to have a remote tendency of this kind. For undoubtedly thefe malicious difpofitions are more repugnant to the truth and fpirit of Chriftianity, than any failure in the ufe of fcholaftic phrafes and metaphyfical niceties and diftinctions can poffibly be. But we do not mean to infinuate, that this book is written in an uncharitable ftrain; its language is temperate and mild, and the principles it inculcates feem to arife from the conviction of the Author's own mind.
Art. 40. The Child's Directory; or Eafy Leffons, in four Parts; defigned for the Inftruction and Improvement of Children and Youth. Part I. A Collection of Scripture Sentences. Part II. The Ten Commandments explained. Part III. Against Sloth and Idleness; on Compaffion and Cruelty; a fummary View of the Things that are Lovely. Part IV. Hymns and Forms of Prayer. To which is prefixed, an Addrefs to Children on good Behaviour. By James Walder. 12mo. 6d. Buckland, &c.
To compose a book for the inftruction of children, in the duties of religion or morality, is perhaps, one of the most difficult kinds of writing. We have multitudes of little tracts intended for this purpofe, but few of them are properly adapted to the conceptions of the very young people for whom they are profeffedly calculated. When Paul was a child, he spake as a child, he understood as a child;" but Paul, become a man, put away childish things,' and, probably forgot them too: fo that Paul himself would, perhaps, have found it difficult to reduce his notions of moral and religious truths to a
level with the understandings of mafter and mifs; who (it must be knowledged) were never more fuccefsfully tutored than they have been of late, under the care of " their old friend, [the late] Mr. John Newbery, of St. Paul's church yard."
The prefent little work is intended for children who have learned to read, and are fuppofed capable of comprehending the good lef. fons here collected, from the Scriptures, for their inftruction. brief commentary on the commandments, may, especially, be useful to those who are too young to enter fully into the peculiar nature and defign of feveral of the precepts delivered by the Jewish legiflator.
Art. 41. A Reply to Parmenas. By the Author of a Letter to a Baptift Minifter. 8vo. 6 d. Shrewsbury printed. Art. 42. More Work for the Vicar of St. Alkmond's, Author of "A Letter to a Baptift Minifter." A Letter to ** **, occăfioned by "A Reply to Parmenas." 8vo. 6 d. Shrewsbury printed. Sold in London by Otridge, &c.
The above pamphlets relate to a controverfy which has lately rifen on the fubject of baptifm; fome account of which is given in the Review for September laft; where the three principal publications in this debate are mentioned with remarks; for which reafon we think it fufficient, as to thefe two tracts, to give only their titles. Art. 43. The Harmony of the Truth; an abfolute Confutation of all infidelity, addreffed to Mr. Ly, on the Publication of the Sequel to the Apology: Being chiefly a Comment on, or Illuftra tion of, the Author's Reply to the Author of the Remarks on a fcriptural Confutation of the Apology, &c. 8vo. I S. Law.
This performance is compounded of bigotry and abfurdity, with fcarcely any other ingredient, except it be a little vanity. Were we to fay that the Writer appears to be abfolutely infane, with relation to the subject he treats upon, he would probably be much offended with us; and yet it is the only judgment which fober and candid criticism can pronounce.
I. Preached at the Vifitation held at Church-Stretton, Shropshire, May 18, 1776. By John Mainwaring, D. D. Rector of ChurchStretton, and Fellow of St. John's, Cambridge. 4to, Woodyer, Cambridge; Beecroft, &c. London.
II. The Duty and Advantage of Integrity in private and publie Life, Atated-Sept. 28, 1776. (Being the Day of electing a chief Magiftrate for the City of London.) Before the Right Hon. John Sawbridge, Lord-Mayor, the Aldermen and Livery of London. By the Rev. Wanley Sawbridge, A. M. Chaplain to his Lordship. 4to. 1 s. Dilly.
III. American Refiftance indefenfible-On the late Faft-Day, Dec. 13. By a Country Curate. 4to. 6d. Gardner.
Contains a brief, but clear and confiftent ftate of our prefent un. happy conflict in America; with ftrong deductions in favour of the measures of government.