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so far as they relate to Philo Judæus and Clemens AlexandriDus, are not just. Mr. Bryant hath produced the passages from those authors at the bottom of the page, and his references are exact. We have examined the originals ; and if our Correspondent had ar opportunity of doing the fame, he would find the affertion of Philo Judrus in the second volume of his works, p. 84, Mangey's edifion; and that of Clemens Alexandrinus in Potter's edition, p. 413. Nevertheless, as Mr. Bryant maintains that Hellenismus and Hellenes are very ancient terms, and that the name of Hellenes was given to an order of Amonian priests in Egypt; may it not be asked, whether Philo, and Clemens mighs not mean those priests, and not ebe Grecians properly so called, when they say that Moses was in. fructed by the Hellenes? In that case, neither Philo nos Clemens will have fallen into 'so great a mistake as Mr. Bryant has represented, unless they should be convicted of this mistake from other circumHances.
+++ The Governor of the Hospitals for the Small.pox and Inoculation, who has favoured us with a letier on the subject of our account of Baron Dimsdale’s Tkoughts on Inoculation (in our Review for Novem. ber, page 394) must have greatly mistaken our intentions, if he thinks that we had any design, in that article, of discouraging the charitable and useful inftitution, at Pancras, in behalf of which he bas addressed as.
We only wished to second the vieivs of Baron Dimsdale, by briefly ftating the inconveniences and dangers which might probably attend the prosecution of a certain plan, to which the Baron alludes, formed for establishing a Dispensary for inoculating the poor of London, at their own houses: as the execution of fuch a scheme appeared to us to have a manifeft tendency to spread the natural disease amongt great numbers of persons who might otherwise have escaped it. We do not imagine the hospitals at Pancras, and Cold-bath-felds, are fo conducted as to furnish room for any apprehensions of this kind. On the cootrary, we have reason to believe, as well from the papers which our Correspondent has communicated to us, aș from Baron Dimsdale's observations on these institutions, that they have been highly beneficial to numerous individuals, without producing any-injury to the community at large.
From a itate of the Hospital fent us by our Correspondent, it appears that 13,343. patients amicted with the natural small-pox have been received into the house, from the commencement of this eftablishment in September 1746, to March 1776'; and that 14,843 perfons have been inoculated in this Hospital during the period included between the years 1752 and 1776. • Erratum, in the Review for April, p. 323, 1. 37, ludicrous is milprinted, for judicious. This is materially injurious to M. Condil. lac's Obfervations on History; and we aik pardon of the ingenious Acadeinician : who, we believe, never thought of making merry with that fubjcct.
Α Ρ Ρ Ε Ν DI X
MONTHLY REVIE W.
VOLUME the FIFTY-FIFTH.
ART. I. Nouveaux Memoirs-New Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sci.
ences and Belles Lettres of Berlin, for the Year 1774, Vol. v. 4to. Berlin, printed by Fred. Voss, 1776.
HIS volume opens with the history of an Extraordinary
Sleeping Disorder, which affected a lady of Nismes, in regular and periodical paroxysms, twice a day, at fun-rise and at noon; the first continuing almost always until near the time that the second began; and the second ceasing about seven or eight o'clock in the evening. The Physico-Psychological Confiderations of the perpetual secretary, M. Formey, on this ftrange phenomenon, are curious. It is remarkable, as he observes, that the paroxysm of the morning always came on at the break of day, in all the different seasons of the year, and thus began sooner or later according to the length or shortness of the days; and that the other commenced a little after noon ; that the former ceased in part, during a short interval before twelve o'clock, during which, the patient had only time to take a little broth before its return; while the second paroxysm cealed entirely between seven and eight in the evening; so that the patient recovered the use of all her members, until the dawn of the next morning, when her sleep returned with all the cha. racters of the most compleat insensibility, except a feeble, but free respiration, and a weak, but regular motion of the pulse. The farther detail of the circumstances of this extraordinary disorder, merits the attention of the Medical Faculty ; because certainly, there are few lethargies recorded in the annals of Phyfiology, that have been attended with such fingular APP. Rey. Vol. lv.
symptoms. It is remarkable, that when the disorder lasted fix months, and then ceased, the patient had an interval of perfect health during the same space of time; that when it lafted a year, the interval was in the same proportion, and that for four or five days before the interval came, a great quantity of Saliva flowed from the mouth, mixed with serous humours, so sharp and corrosive, that they affected the parts which they touched in their passage. At length the disorder ceased entirely, without the least appearance of return. The woman lived many years; was always lively and active, though reftless and ill-humoured ; and died in the 81st year of her age, of a dropsy, which did not seem to have any connexion with her preceding disorder.
The learned Academician, after having shewn the great difficulties that attend our enquiries into the causes of all disorders, whole paroxysms are regular and periodical, and the peculiar difficuliies that attend the case now before us, makes several physiological and psychological reflections on this case; but the former are too hypothetical, and carry with them so little perspicuity, and evidence, that we shall not abridge them here; while the latter are drawn from the most chimerical, fairy regions of metaphysical refinement and speculation, and tend to fhew little else than that our Academician, (who has served under several philosophical standards, of various colours) thinks matter may be, for ought we know, the seat of intelligence, and poffefs all the qualities that are needlessly attributed to a spiritual substance.
Memoirs, by M. Castillon, Junior, concerning the Flutes of the Ancients. This subject has been treated by several learned men, particularly Bartholinus, and the celebrated Le Fever (Tana. quillus Faber) but imperfe&ly; notwithstanding their valt erudition, as they were ignorant of mufic. M. Caftillon, who is both a scholar and a musician, has succeeded better : his principal design here, is to prove that the Aute of the ancients was a kind of hautboy, wbich uttered its found by the means of a reed, and that there were two sorts of Autes, in one of wbich the reed was visible, as it is in our hautboy, but was concealed in the other, in the same manner as it is in children's trumpets. Several passages of the ancients are elegantly explained in this memoir; in which we find reflections on the different parts of their Autes, and on the names that were given to these instruments.
MECHANIC S. Account of a Manuscript Memoir of the R. F. Knoll, relating to the manner of rendering the beds of fick persons more con.. venient, by a new method of construction, which makes it ealy
to change the posture of the patient, without any effort on his part, or his being removed from the bed. Extract of two Letters from Marseilles, addressed to M. Formey,
, , by Mrs. Barbier de Longpré. Mr. Paw, in his Philosophical Researches concerning the Egyptians and Chinese, affirms that the Pharaohs coined no money, and that the Egyptians carried on their commerce by weighing the metals, that were employed in sales and purchases. The author of these letters discovered, amidst the medals of her father, (who had resided in Egypt as French consul) an ancient coin, which appears to be of the molt remote antiquity, and elegantly engraven; it represents one of the Pharaohs, and is particularly described in the paper before us.
The two following articles, in the historical part of this volume, exhibit the principal contents of cwo letters addressed to M. de Castillon, the one by Mr. Magellan, in which he mentions the noble telescope, of four feet diameter, which M. Trudaine de Montigne had constructed for the Academy of Sciences, and gives an account, among other things, of mercury calcined or precipitated per se, by the means of a continual ebullition, during the space of two years, which M. de Beaumé presented to the same learned society,--the other from M. de Luc concerning his new hygrometer, and the experiments of Dr. Priestley on fixed air, which are well known.
EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY. MEMOIR I. An Examination of the following Physiological Question,
“ Whether Women are as fruitful, and the Instances of Twins as “ numerous, in modern as in ancient Times ?" By M. de Fran. cheville.
In order to prove that man is not in a physical state of weakness and degeneracy, and that the principles of life and fecundity, are neither vitiated nor enfeebled in the human race, the learned Academician takes the affirmative side of the question here proposed, and presents us with an enormous list of women in the firaw, who have brought forth twins, in the remote period of antiquity,–in the middle age, and in modern times. By twins, however, we are not here to understand pairs; for the author confines his examples to the cases, where three children or any number above that, have been produced at a birth. Excellent reading, this, for midwives and gollips, and all lovers of the marvellous. Egypt, Greece and Italy, furnish our Academician, in the ist period, with many examples of 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 children produced at a birth, and Pliny mentions a miscarriage of 12. The ad period is not inferior to the first in female fecundity, and one case is alleged of a Polish Countess in the territory of Cracovia, named Virboflafs, who was deliKk 2
vered of 36 living children at a birth, in the 13th century. Martin Čremonenfius, who wrote the history of Poland in 1270 (the year after this is supposed to have happened) affirms the fact; which, however, we are inclined to place in the class of fables, along with the delivery of the Countess of Henneberg (at the village of Losduin near the Hague) of 365 children at one birth ; a story, which M. de Francheville mentions and explodes under the first period. The 3d period, from the 15th century to the year 1775, furnishes deliveries of 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, and an imperfe&t one of 17; and thus is not inferior in fecundity to the two former. Q. E. D. Memoir II. Remarks concorning the Temperament in Mufii. By
M. Lambert. The question here is, to express a found or any given relation a by means of the numbers 2, 3, 5, in fuch a manner, that the formule a= 2o. 3o. 5o. may be resolved either exactly or with a certain given degree of precision, the exponents m, n, p, being entire numbers, positive or negative. Memoir III. Concerning Aerial Perspective. By M. Lambert,
The fubject of this memoir is that branch of the painter's art, which relates to the degradation of the colour of objects proportionably to their distance, and the constitution of the atmospbere ; and it is here treated in a masterly manner. MEMOIR IV. Confiderations on the Paris of Generation in the
Female Sex. By M. Walter. A very curious and learned memoir, every way worthy the attention of anatomists. MEMOIR V. Experiments on the Allay of various Metals and Semi-Metals. By M. Margraff
. These experiments are divided into four clafies. The ift contains those that were made with copper and zinc, both as perfe&tly disengaged from all heterogeneous parts, as was poffible. The author employed the copper of Japan, as being the finest, and zinc, which he purified by distillation. The experiments of the 2d class were made upon copper mixed with fine pewter of Malaga : those of the 3d on copper, mixed with zinc and pewter : those of the 4th, on common and malleable brass, mixed with fine pewter. The effects of these experiments are curious, and deserve the perusal of the chymist, who is referred to the work itself, Continuation of M. Beguelin's Inquiry concerning the Variations
of the Barometer. In the former part of this memoir * the learned and ingenious Academician had endeavoured to prove, that the variation of the whole mass of the atmosphere, and the variation of the See the Appendix to the 53d Vol. of the Monthly Review.