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The Churchmen against the Church,
The Legiflators against the Law,
The Judges against Juftice,
The Preachers atheistically against the Truth,

The Soldiery boldly, impudently, William (cruel as Nero) their General,
Againt Honour, against Humanity.

This, an opprobrious, and fhameful conduct in us.
For this Land mourns for wickedness, perjury!
As a proof of this we have many living and late witneffes.
Away! Away! with it.
Alas! our dearest Mother, of happy memory, became fick,
In the year 1688.

Woes me, She became lame both in the hands and feet,
In the year 1707.

At length have mercy on me, O God! worn out by many ftrokes, griefs,
She died in the year 1748.

All ye Seniors, Sons and Daughters,

Pray for her, that fhe may reft in peace, and at length obtain A happy refurrection. AMEN.' We muft difmifs this article with our entire difapprobation of the style, which abounds with Scoticisms, barbarisms, and breaches of grammar.

Art. VIII. An Efay on the Bath Waters, Vol. II. On their external Uft. In two Parts. By William Falconer, M. D. F. R. S. 8vo. 4s. Sewed. Lowndes. 1775.

Art. IX. An Effay on the Water commonly used at Bath. By the fame. 12mo. 3s. Bound. Lowndes. 1776.


HROUGH mere accident we have, for a long time paft, overlooked the first of these two performances; in which the Author, after having in his firft volume treated at large of the internal medical ufe of the Bath waters, gives an account of their external effects in bathing. In the firft of the two parts, into which this volume is divided, he confiders warm bathing in general; and in the fecond, treats of the peculiar action of the Bath waters, thus applied.

Befides the other well-known effects of warm water on the human body immersed in it, the Author confiders thofe in particular, which are derived from its being taken up in confiderable quantity, by the abforbent veffels difperfed over the surface, by which it is tranfmitted to the lymphatic fyftem, &c. Relative to this part of his fubject, he made the following experiments:

Having plunged his hand, as high as the wrift, in a bowl of water, heated to 112 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer, and having kept it there fifteen minutes, he found, after taking every precaution to render the refult accurate, that his hand alone had abforbed in this time one drachm thirty-eight grains (or ninety-eight grains) of water; the heat of which, at the end of the experiment, was diminished to about ninety-one


degrees and a half.-This experiment was tried two hours before dinner. On repeating it next day, two hours after dinner, in order to fee the effects of taking in food, the quantity of water abforbed amounted only to forty-three grains. Now fuppofing every part of the body to abforb equally with the hand, and that the ratio of the furface of the latter is to that of the whole body as one to fixty; the quantity of water, which would be abforbed by the whole body, according to the firft of thefe experiments, will be twelve ounces and two drachms; a quantity which, the Author obferves, is confiderable enough to be taken into confideration; efpecially when the particular qualities of the fluid employed are depended on.

The Author next proceeds to treat of all the cafes in which warm bathing is indicated, as likewife of natural and artificial medicated baths; and of the cafes in which they are contraindicated; adding fome obfervations and cautions relative to the ufe of the warm bath in general; and on the compofition of vapour baths.


In the fecond part, the Author applies the observations which he had made on warm bathing, in general, to the external ufe of the Bath waters, in particular; following nearly the fame order which he had obferved in the first part. He confiders the Bath waters as medicated baths, confifting of hepar fulphuris, with quck lime, felenites, common falt, a fmall portion of iron (diffolved by means of the volatile vitriolic acid) and fixible air, united with water;' and inftitutes a comparison of the effects of this compound aqueous folution, with thofe of fimple water.

In the course of this comparifon he fhews, that the external, or mechanical operation, of the Bath waters on the body, does not fenfibly differ from that of common water of the fame degree of temperature; but having remarked that the operation of the Bath waters, when taken into the ftomach, is very different from that of common water; he adds, that there is reafon to fuppofe that the former may likewife exert different effects, when received into the fyftem, in confequence of their having been applied to the furface of the body. Many medicines, fuch as nitre, opium, faturnine applications, and even the bark, have been found to enter the body, undecompounded, or without alteration; fo as to exert their fpecific effects, when exhi

We fhall here obferve, that the quantity of pure fixed air contained in the Bath waters, appears, from Dr. Priestley's late experiments, to amount only to about one-fixtieth of its bulk: a quantity inferior to that contained even in the generality of common Spring waters.


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bited in the form of external topical application: he thinks therefore that it is very poffible that the chalybeate, fulphureous, and other impregnations of the Bath waters, may produce their peculiar effects in the body, on their being abforbed, and received into it; as they are held in a ftate of perfect folution by the aqueous menftruum.'

For other particulars contained in this volume, we must refer the Reader to the work itfelf, which contains many pertinent, and fome new obfervations. The fame character may be applied to the Author's fmall work, the title of which we have given above. In this, he first treats of the medicinal or dietetic qualities of waters, in general, divided into atmospherical and terreftrial; and of the chemical, or other criteria, by which we are enabled to judge of their purity: attending likewise to the adventitious qualities, which they might receive in their paffage, through the pipes which convey them; parti cularly thofe of lead, from which, under certain circumftances here mentioned, he fhews, that they are liable to contract a nexious impregnation.

Thefe obfervations, on the qualities of water in general, are followed by an account of feveral experiments made to afcertain the properties of the particular waters commonly used in diet at Bath. From one of these experiments, the Author is inclined to fuppofe, that the cauftic alcali has a power of rendering a fmall portion of calcareous earth foluble in water.



Art. 10. Reflections on the American Conteft: in which the Confequences of a forced Submiflion, and the Means of a lafting Reconciliation are pointed out. In a Letter to a Member of Parlia ment. 8vo. Is. Bew.


HIS letter is faid to have been written in the year 1769, foon many candid, pertinent, and juft reflections on the fituation, circumftances, and difpofitions of the Colonifts; and on the confequences of attempting to govern them by force. A copy of the letter (as we are told) was fome time fince communicated to lord George Germaine, to whom an address is prefixed.

Art. 11. The Political Mirror: by a Student in the Inner-Temple. 8vo. 1s. 6d. Becket. The Writer declaims vehemently, and reafons badly.

Art. 12. A Dialogue on the Principles of the Conftitution and legal Liberty, compared with Defpotifin; applied to the American Question, and the probable Events of the War, with Obfervations on fome important Law Authorities. Evo. 25. Owen.

The dialogue is judiciously conducted, and exhibits a perfpicuous, fober, and rational defence of the Colonies.


Art. 13. A foort Appeal to the People of Great Britain, upon the unavoidable Neceflity of the prefent Wat with our difaffected Colonies. 12mo. 2 d. Kearfly.

minifterial hand bill.


Art. 14. Independancy, the Object of the Congress in America; or an Appeal to Facts. 8vo. 1s. Rivington.

That independancy was primitively the object of the Congrefs,' does not appear by any fact or reason which this Writer has alleged. But that it will very foon become their oject, we are difpofed to believe, because the late measures of government feem to have rendered it the only alternative, to an unconditional fubmiffion; which the Colonists do not yet feem inclined to offer.

The Writer fays, I expect to be accufed of paffion, prejudice, and antipathy to individuals. I avow the charge. This confeffion though candid, was very unneceffary; for we have rarely feen a performance, which exhibits more unequivocal marks of paffion, prejudice, and antipathy,' than the present.

Art. 15. Familiar Dialogues between Americus and Britannicus ; in which the Right of private Judgment, the exploded Doctrines of Infallibility, paffive Obedience, and Non-refiftance; with the leading Sentiments of Dr. Price on the Nature of Civil Liberty, &c. are particularly confidered. By John Martin. 8vo. I s.


Mr. Martin feems very defirous to have it known that fome have apprehended him to be the Writer of a paper called the Monitor;" and as he indirectly admits this apprehenfion to have been well founded, fuch of our Readers as have perufed the paper, may know where to pay the tribute of honour, which the Writer probably expects for his performance,-a performance which we have been fo unfortunate as never to have feen, or even heard of.

Refpecting the dialogues, they afford fcarcely any thing worthy of attention. Poor Americus is made to argue but weakly and injudiciously, and is fatisfied with arguments, and puzzled by objections, of no force. And indeed Mr. Martin must have been but very fuperficially acquainted with facts refpecting America, or he would not have employed fo much room and time in cenfuring the Colonists, for confidering the wild Indians as their own flaves. A cenfure which, as nearly as we can conjecture, he has repeated, twenty times, though it has not the fmalleft foundation in truth. The American Indians being, and having been always confidered as the freeft people on earth.

Art. 16. The Conflitutional Advocate: By which, from the Evi

dence of History, and of Records, and from the Principles of British Government, every Reader may form his own Judgment concerning the juftice and Policy of the prefent War with America. Addreffed to the People at large, &c. 8vo. 1s. Flexney. Several ancient charters, ftatutes, and law authorities are here enlifted in defence of the Colonies, and accompanied with fome good arguments, and just conclufions.

* See Review, April, p. 330, art. 22.


Art. 17. The Duty of the King and Subject, on the Principles of
Civil Liberty: Colonists not intitled to Self Government; or to
the fame Privileges with Britons. Being an Anfwer to Dr. Price's
Syftem of Fanatical Liberty. By the Author of the Political
Looking-Glafs, 8vo. 1s. Dixwell.
Dixwell. 1775.

We have here a moft extraordinary Writer indeed! Sometimes he expreffes himself very well, and argues acutely; but, in almost every page, we meet with fuch illiterate and blundering language, as we can no otherwise account for, than from the fuppofition, that the manufcript must have been fo illegible, that the devil himself could not make out the meaning.

Art. 18. A Letter to the Right Honouralle the Earl of Shelburne, on the Motives of his Political Conduct, and the Principles which have actuated the Oppofition to the Measures of Administration, in refpect to America. 8vo. 6d. W. Davis. 1776.

Very free, very fevere, and very unpolite, though (if we except a Scotticism or two, and a few incorrect paffages) not ill written. The Author abufes not only his Lord bip, but the oppofition in general, and he is, occasionally, moft illiberal in his reflections on Dr. Price, and the prefbyterians, with whom, he feems to apprehend, Lord Shelburne is, in fome degree, affociated.

Art. 19. A Letter to the Reverend Dr. Price, wherein his Obfervations, &c. are candidly examined. 8vo. Is. Bew. See the fucceeding article,

Art. 20. The total Refutation and Political Overthrow of Doctor Price; or Great Britain fuccefsfully vindicated against all American Rebels, and their Advocates. In a fecond Letter to that Gentleman. By James Stewart. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. Sold by the Author, at No. 138, Shoreditch, and by Bew in Paternofler-Row, Mr. Stewart undertakes to prove that Dr. Price's Obfervations on Civil Liberty,' are incompatible with human nature, contrary to reafon and common fenfe, and the experience of all ages; and diametrically opponite to the doctrines of the chriftian religion: alfo, ⚫ to demonftrate that his calculations are erroneous, fallacious, abfurd and contradictory:' and, farther, to place the Doctor's 'fyftem in a new and ftriking light, equally curious, entertaining, and interefting. His ftyle is not very polite; but he is more fhrewd in his arguments than many of the Doctor's numerous antagonists. He attempts to ridicule, and is only rude. Had he confined himself to reasoning, for which he really has abilities, he would have been more applauded by candid and difcerning readers, though, perhaps, not by the vul gar. Apart, however, from his illiberal manner, we muft do him the juftice to allow, that if he has not, (as he boafts) given Dr. P. a total overthrow, he has offered fome remarks that feem to merit the attention of that gentleman, and of the public.

• Thus, he says, p. 13. The English have been, for a long period in the habits of a limited monarchy ! No English Writer would thus have expreffed himself: but the meaning is obvious.

REV. July, 1776.


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