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1. JUNILIUS was an African Bishop, but of what place is not certainly known. Cave speaks of him, as flourishing about the year 550; Hody about 560. He is in Trithemius; and I transcribe his chapter below. Moreoverd Du Pin and Fabricius have accounts of this bishop, which deserve to be taken notice of.


2. The only remaining work of Junilius, and the only work of his, which Trithemius, in the fifteenth century, had met with, intitled, Off the Parts of the Divine Law, in two books, is written by way of question and answer.

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3. He has several ways of dividing the books of scripture. Some are of perfect, others of middle authority, others of none at all and some are historical, some prophetical, some proverbial, some teach simply. So that to transcribe him at length requires more room than I can afford: I shall, however, take briefly what he says relating to the books of the New Testament.


The historical books of the New Testament, of perfect and canonical authority, are the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and the Acts of the Apostles.'

a H. L. T. i.

b De Biblior. Text. Orig. p. 653.

Junilius, episcopus cujusdam urbis in Africâ, (nomen autem urbis invenire non potui,) vir certe in sacris scripturis valde doctus, et in secularibus disciplinis, meo judicio, sufficienter instructus, sensu profundus, eloquio dulcis et ornatus, multa dicitur conscripsisse opuscula. Sed ego tantum vidi opus insigne, quod scripsit ad Primasium supradictum episcopum, quod prænotavit, De Partibus Divinæ Legis. Claruit A. D, 540. Trithem. de Script. Ec. c. 155. d Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. v. p. 81. e De Veritat. Relig. Christian. p. 255.

f De Partibus Divinæ Legis. Libri duo. Ap. Bib. PP. Max. T. x. p. 340-350.

Discip. Quomodo divinorum librorum consideratur auctoritas? Mag. Quia quidam perfectæ auctoritatis sunt, quidam mediæ, quidam nullius. Ď. Qui sunt perfectæ auctoritatis? M. Quos canonicos in singulis speciebus absolute enumeravimus. D. Qui mediæ ? M. Quos adjungi a pluribus diximus. D. Qui nullius auctoritatis sunt? M. Reliqui omnes. L. i. c. 7. p. 341. G. H. h Disc. Species dictionis quot sunt? M. Quatuor. Nam aut historica est, aut prophetica, aut proverbialis, aut simpliciter docens. L. i. c. 2. p. 340. F.



- Evangeliorum quatuor: secundum Matthæum, secundum Marcum, secundum Lucam, secundum Johannem : Actuum Apostolorum. Ib. c. 3. p. 340. G.

5. Those books,' he says, ' teach simply, wherein we are plainly instructed concerning faith and manners; and which do not relate history, nor prophecy, nor speak proverbially, but only teach plainly. The books that teach simply, are the epistles of the apostle Paul: to the Romans one; to the Corinthians two; to the Galatians one; to the Ephesians one; to the Philippians one; to the Colossians one; to the Thessalonians two; to Timothy two; to Titus one; to Philemon one; to the Hebrews one; one of the blessed Peter to the Gentiles; and the first epistle of the blessed John. To these many add five more; one epistle of James; the second of Peter; one of Jude; and two of John.' He also says, that the Revelation of John was doubted of, generally, by the christians in the east.' Which may imply, that it was generally received in Africa, as indeed it was.

6. It may be here asked by some: How could Junilius, an African, know the sentiment of christians in the east, concerning the book of the Revelation? And how comes it to pass, that he speaks as he does of the catholic epistles? I answer, that in the preface or dedication of his work to Primasius he says, hem had been acquainted with Paul, a Persian, a learned man, who had been educated in the school of the Syrians at Nisibis. From him, it is likely, he received this information, as indeed he there intimates,

7. And in what he says of the catholic epistles there are two things somewhat remarkable. First, that he supposeth the first epistle of Peter to have been written to Gentiles; and consequently the second also, if it be Peter's: for, very probably, the two epistles were sent to the same people. Secondly, of the seven catholic epistles he reckons two only of perfect canonical authority: the other five are only of middle authority, rejected by some, and received by others. If Junilius has here given a true account of what he heard

* D. Quæ est simplex doctrina? M. Quâ de fide aut de moribus in præsenti tempore docemur. D. Quare hoc nomen accepit ? M. Quia neque historiam texit, neque prophetiam, neque proverbialiter loquitur, sed tantum modo simpliciter docet. D. Qui libri ad simplicem doctrinam pertinent? M, -Epistolæ Pauli apostoli ad Romanos, 1. ad Corinthios, 2.-Beati Petri ad Gentes, 1. et beati Johannis prima. D. Nulli alii libri ad simplicem doctrinam pertinent? M. Adjungunt quamplurimi quinque alias, quæ apostolorum canonicæ nuncupantur: Jacobi 1. Petri secundam, Judæ unam, Johannis duas. Ib. c. 6. p. 341. F. 1 Cæterum de Johannis Apocalypsi

apud Orientales admodum dubitatur. Ib. c. 4. p. 341. B.

m Ad hæc ego respondi: Vidisse me quemdam, Paulum nomine, Persam genere, qui in Syrorum scholà in Nisibi urbe est edoctus, ubi divina lex per magistros publicos, sicut apud nos in mundanis studiis Grammatica et Rhetorica, ordine et regulariter traditur. Ib. p. 340. C.

from the above-named Persian, it may be argued, that there were some in the east, who rejected or doubted of the epistle of James, as well as the other four: which indeed appears to me very probable.

8. In another place" he mentions the books of the New Testament in this order: the four gospels, the apostolical epistles, and the Acts.

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9. He puts the question; How do we know the authors of the books of scripture? The answer is: Some are known by the titles, and introductions, as the books of the prophets, in the Old Testament, and the epistles of the apostles, in the New. Some are known by their titles only, as the gospels; some by tradition from the ancients, as the five books of Moses. Of some books the authors are unknown, as those of Ruth, the Judges, and the Kings.'

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10. He likewise puts the question: How do we know the books of our religion to be written by divine inspiration? I transcribe his answer below, though it be somewhat long; where he also says, that miracles were wrought till the scripture (or the christian religion) was received by the Gentiles: but now it is sufficient, that it is universally received; which may be considered as a standing miracle.'

11. Before I conclude this chapter I should refer to 4 James Basnage, who has observations upon this writer's catalogues of the books of scripture, that part especially, which concerns the books of the Old Testament.

" Quis est ordo divinorum voluminum ?--Evangelia (ut supradictum est) quatuor, apostolicæ epistolæ, et Actus. Ib. c. 10. p. 342. B.

• D. Scriptores divinorum librorum quâ ratione cognoscimus? M. Tribus modis. Aut ex titulis, et proœmiis, ut propheticos libros, et apostolorum epistolas; aut ex titulis tantum, ut evangelistas; aut ex traditione veterum, ut Möyses creditur scripsisse quinque primos libros historia.--Similiter et Jesu Nave liber, ab eo quo nuncupatur, traditur scriptus.-Sciendum præterea, quod quorumdam librorum penitus ignorantur auctores, ut est Judicum, et Ruth, et Regum, &c. Ib. c. 8.

P Disc. Unde probamus, libros religionis nostræ divinâ esse inspiratione conscriptos? M. Ex multis, quorum primum est ipsius scripturæ veritas : deinde ordo rerum, consonantia præceptorum, modus locutionis sine ambitu, puritasque verborum. Additur conscribentium et prædicantium qualitas; quod divina homines, excelsa viles, infacundi subtilia, non nisi divino repleti Spiritu tradidissent. Tum prædicationis virtus, quæ, dum prædicaretur, licet a paucis despectis, obtinuit. Accedunt his rectificatio [f. testificatio] contrariorum, ut Sibyllarum vel Philosophorum, expulsio adversariorum, utilitas consequentium, exitus eorum, quæ per acceptationem et figuras pradicationesque prædicta sunt. Ad postremum, miracula jugiter facta, donec scriptura ipsa susciperetur a Gentibus. De quâ nunc ad proximum miraculum sufficit, quod ab omnibus suscepta cognoscitur. Ib. 1. ii. c. 29. p. 350.

¶ Hist. de l'Eglise, 1. viii. c. 10. p. 443, 444.



1. His time. II. Three catalogues of the books of the Old and New Testament inserted by him in his Institution; Jerom's, Augustine's, and that of the old Latin version. III. General remarks upon those catalogues, as here rehearsed. IV. An account of his Complexiones, or short Commentaries, and extracts from them.



I. MAGNUS AURELIUS CASSIODORIUS SENATOR is placed by Cave as flourishing in the year 514, when he was consul: but as I am to quote his works, written after his retirement from the world, particularly his Institution of Sacred Letters,' or Theology, written in 556, or thereabouts, I place him at that year. He lived to a great age: but the time of his death is not certainly known. I beg leave to refer to some places in this work, where this writer has been already mentioned.

II. Cassiodorius, in that work, has put down three Catalogues of the books of the Old and New Testament.

1. The first he calls Jerom's: what was St. Jerom's catalogue or canon of the books of the Old Testament, is well known from his Prologus Geleatus, still extant, and But the transcribed formerly: his canon was the same with that of the Jews; and there can be no mistake about it. catalogue, as published in Cassiodorius's work, is not ex

a Vid. Cav. H. L. T. i. p. 501. Du Pin, Bib. des Aut. Ec. T. v. p. 63. Fabric. ap. Bib. Ecc. ad Honorii Aug. 1. xiii. cap. 21. Trithem. de Scr. Ec. cap. 212. Le Long. B. Sacr. p. 670. Vit. Cassiod. a Garetio conscript. Pagi Ann. 493. n. iii. 514. n. i. 562. n. iv. S. Basnag. Ann. 534. n. b Senator absque collegâ ii. 535. n. x. 562. n. i. annum aperuit, ut habent omnes Fasti, et ipsemet in Chronico suo prodit. Est is Cassiodorus.-Cumque in omnibus Fastis et in epistolarum subscriptionibus vocetur tantum Senator, eo cognomine uti proprio appellatum fuisse, et ita in Fastis citandis appellandum intelligimus. Pagi Ann. 514. n. i.

Ad num. v. et seqq. pluribus de Magno Aurelio Čassiodoro Senatore agit hoc anno Baronius, quo ejus mortem consignat. Verum annus mortis ejus, d See vol. ii. deficientibus veteribus monimentis, definiri non potest. Unde plures eum in annum DLXXV. differunt. Pagi Ann. 562. n. iv. e Divisio scripturæ divinæ ch. xxii. num. iv. 3. and num. viii. 6. secundum Hieronymum. Auctoritas divina secundum sanctum Hieronymum, in Testamenta duo ita dividitur, id est, in Vctus et Novum, &c. De Institut. Divinar. Lit. cap. 12. T. ii. p. 516. Venetiis, 1729

See vol. iv. ch. cxiv.

act for the book of the Kings, which should follow after Samuel, is wanting and instead of Ecclesiastes, is put Ecclesiasticus. Upon this part of the Catalogue, as published by Garetius, Martianay made some free and just remarks, which I place below for the sake of curious readers. The remainder of the catalogue, consisting of the books of the New Testament, is thus: The evangelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John. After them follow the epistles of the apostles; two of Peter; fourteen of Paul; three of John; one of James; one of Jude; one book of the Acts of the Apostles by Luke; one book of the Revelation

of John.'

2. The next is called the Division of the Divine Scripture according to Augustine. We have already considered very largely Augustine's testimony to the scriptures: nevertheless I shall here transcribe the titles of the books of the New Testament, as enumerated by Cassiodorius. Thek New Testament consists of one-and-twenty epistles of apostles, that is, one epistle of the apostle Paul to the Romans to the Corinthians two; to the Galatians one; to the Ephesians one; to the Philippians one; to the Thessalonians two; to the Colossians one; to Timothy two; to Titus one; to Philemon one; to the Hebrews one; two epistles of Peter, three of John, one of Jude, one of James; the four gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, John; one book of the Acts of the Apostles; one book of the

Salomon: Proverbia, Ecclesiasticus, Canticum Canticorum. Ibid. Hæc ex Prologo Hieronymi Galeato afferebat Cassiodorius. Sed vitiosa est prorsus illa divisio, tam in editis, quam in manuscriptis libris. 1. quidem omissà ubique voce Malachim, post verbum Samuel.-3. pro nomine isto Ecclesiastes posuerunt Ecclesiasticum, qui non est Salomonis, sed liber Jesu filii Sirach; quique in canonem nusquam admissus est ab Hieronymo. Neque tamen negligentiæ vel inscientiæ accusandus est Garetius noster, qui in ultimă Cassiodori operum editione hos non emendârit codicumn, seu editorum, seu manuscriptorum, errores, &c. Martian. Prolegom. iii. n. i. in Divin. Bib. Hieron. In evangelistas, qui sunt Matthæus, Marcus, Lucas, Johannes. Post hos sequuntur epistolæ apostolorum, Petri duæ, Pauli quatuordecim, Johannis tres, Jacobi una, Judæ una, Actuum Apostolorum Lucæ liber unus, et Apocalypsis Johannis liber unus. De Institut. Divin. Lit. cap. 12. * In epistolis apostolorum viginti una id est, Pauli apostoli ad Romanos una, ad Corinthios duæ, ad Galatas una, ad Ephesios una, ad Philippenses una, ad Thessalonicenses duæ, ad Colossenses una, ad Timotheum duæ, ad Titum una, ad Philemonem una, ad Hebræos una, Petri duæ, Johannis tres, Judæ una, Jacobi una: In evangeliis quatuor, id est, secundum Matthæum, secundum Marcum, secundum Lucam, secundum Johannem: In Actibus Apostolorum liber unus. In Apocalypsi liber unus. Beatus igitur Augustinus-secundo libro de Doctrinâ Christianâ Scripturas Divinas septuaginta unius librorum calculo comprehendit. Ib. c. 13. p.


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