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turns Gentile, or heretic, his fall is great and his ruin complete and final.
14. Descanting upon Matth. xxii. 33, "Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers:" he resembles heretics to serpents on more accounts than one. Where he also observes, what is commonly said of heretics, that they are not uniform and consistent, but very various and unsteady in their sentiments.
15. He decries the baptism of heretics, as altogether invalid, and of no use to them who have it: upon this point he declares his opinion again and again.
16. I do not transcribe these things with approbation, nor with a view of recommendation: far from it. I think that severity of judgment, and bitterness of spirit, toward people of different sentiments ought to be disliked in all men, whatever be their denomination. But as 1 have taken the liberty, in the course of this work, to observe the defects of moderation in Amphilochius, Gregory Nazianzen, ↳ Jerom, Cassian, and others; I have thought it not improper to transcribe all these passages, for showing the temper of this writer also which appears to me to be far from being commendable, or deserving imitation.
III. My chief concern is with the New Testament: nevertheless I shall take some notice of this writer's regard for the Old Testament also.
1. He has quoted most or all the books of the Old Testament: particularly the book of Ruth, and the Canticles.
Serpentes enim sunt et omnes hæretici, prudentes in malo, et stulti in bono. Et sicut serpentes varii sunt in corpore suo, sic hæretici varii sunt in erroribus suis, et multiplices in malignitate. Hom. 41. p. 191. D. E.
Vide, doctores hæretici quid dicuntur a Christo? Devoratores. Si ergo eruditus es ab hæreticis, raptus es, non eruditus, non pastus. Si baptizatus ab eis es, devoratus es, non salvatus. Nam luporum est devorare, non salvare. Hom. 19. p. 94. C. D.-Quomodo autem nudus vestiat nudum, aut quomodo mendicus faciat alterum divitem? Sic et ipse, qui baptizatus non est, quomodo alteri potest baptismum dare? Secundum hoc et de hæreticis dicimus: Quia ubi est fides, illic est ecclesia: ubi ecclesia, ibi Sacerdos: ubi Sacerdos, ibi baptismum: ubi baptismum, ibi christianus. Ubi autem fides non est, ibi nec ecclesia est: ubi ecclesia non est, nec Sacerdos est: ubi Sacerdos non est, nec baptismum: ubi baptismum non est, nec christianus fit aliquis. Hom. 6. p. 51. B. C. Vid. et Hom. 3. p. 38. B. * See Vol. iv. ch. xcix. num. iii. b The same, ch. cxiv. num. ii. See this vol. p. 32. d Hic itaque Booz accipit uxorein Moabitidem, nomine Ruth. Quomodo accepit eam, exponere existimavi superfluum, cum de his scriptura sit omnibus manifesta. Hom. 1. p. 16. C. Sic in ecclesiâ, quæ hortus est Christi, Salomone Hom. 20. p. 95. C.-Sicut in Canticis ex personâ Hom. 13. p. 75. E.
a The same, ch. xcviii. num. iii. 6.
dicente. [Cant. iv. 12.] ecclesiæ Sapientia dicit.
2. The book of Ecclesiasticus is often quoted in this work sometimes as Sirach's, several times ass Solomon's. 3. The book of Wisdom is quoted as Solomon's.
4. This author quotes the second book of the Maccabees.
5. He has also quoted Tobit.
6. There are several other apocryphal books, relating to the Old Testament quoted by him.
7. As the book of Seth.
8. Another book, how called, is not quite clear; whether Isaiah, or Hezekiah.
9. From some apocryphal book, though not expressly named by him, he had learned the names of the two daughters of Adam, married to Cain and Abel.
IV. I now proceed to take this writer's testimony to the books of the New Testament.
1. It may be worth while to observe somewhat particularly what he says of the evangelists Matthew and John, in the Prologue or Introduction to his Commentary upon St. Matthew's gospel.
2. The occasion of Matthew's writing was said to be
f Nam in Sirach Libro adventum Christi sic deprecatur. Hom. 30. p. 126. C. Vid. Hom. 2. p. 33. C. Hom. 12. p. 67. D. Hom. 17. p. 89. B. C. Hom. 28. p. 120. D. E. Hom. 29. p. 123. A. Hom. 36. p. 154. C. Hom. 41. p. 174. E. Hom. 51. p. 215. D. Hom. 1. p. 25. C. Hom. 39. p. 163. B. Hom. 24. p. 105. A. iHom. 25. p. 112. C.
* Hom. 26. p. 115. B. Hom. 1.
p. 26. C. Hom. 13. p. 74. C. D.
Audivi aliquos referentes de quâdam scripturâ, etsi non certâ, tamen non destruente fidem, sed potius delectante, quoniam erat quædam gens sita in ipso principio Orientis juxta Oceanum, apud quos ferebatur quædam scriptura, inscripta nomine Seth, de appariturâ hac stellà et muneribus ei hujusmodi offerendis. Hom. 2. p. 28. D. E.
Denique cum ægrotâsset Ezechias in tempore quodam, et venisset ad eum Esaïas propheta visitandum, vocavit Ezechias filium suum Manassen, et cœpit ei mandare, quod debeat Deum timere, quomodo regere regnum, et alia multa. Et dixit ad eum Esaïas: Vere quia non descendunt verba tua in cor ejus; sed et meipsum oportet per manum ejus interfici. Quod audiens Ezechias, volebat filium suum interficere, &c. Hom. 1. p. 21. A.
quomodo aliquando licuit et sorores habere uxores? quomodo habuerunt Cain et Abel? Hæc nomina filiarum Adam, quas in initio habuit post Cain et Abel, Risam et Edoclam, et non peccaverunt. Hom. 1. p. 24. A.
Sicut referunt, Matthæum conscribere evangelium causa compulit talis. Cum facta fuisset in Palæstinâ persecutio gravis, et periclitarentur dispergi omnes, ut carentes forte doctoribus fidei non carerent doctrinâ, petierunt Matthæum, ut omnium verborum et operum Christi conscriberet eis historiam, ut, ubicunque essent futuri, totius secum haberent fidei statum. Quod autem ab humanâ ejus cœpit nativitate, et humanam ejus generationem exposuit, compulit impia impudentia Judæorum, denegantium Jesum Christum de David semine ducere genus. Corpus autem narrationis suæ ordinavit hoc modo. Primum nativitatem, deinde baptismum, tertio tentationem,
this; There being a great persecution in Palestine, so that there was danger, lest all the faithful should be dispersed ; that they might not be without teaching, though they should have no teachers, they requested Matthew to write for them. a history of all Christ's words and works, that wherever they should be, they might have with them the ground of their faith. That he began with Christ's nativity, according to the flesh, was owing to the unbelieving Jews, who denied Jesus to be descended from David. The body of his history is disposed in this manner; First, he relates Christ's nativity, then his baptism, after that his temptation, in the fourth place his doctrine, in the fifth place his miracles, in the sixth his passion, in the seventh his resurrection and ascension. Matthew is an evangelist of saints, but more especially of sinners; who preached the gospel to sinners not only in word, but by the example also of his own repentance; nor would be, who had been a publican, employed in collecting perishable riches, have been made an evangelist, to write words that should endure for ever, unless by his example he had encouraged sinners to hope for mercy.'
3. In his first homily upon St. Matthew, that is, in the beginning of his Commentary, he says, ' John wrote for the Gentiles, when he was in banishment among them. He wrote for Gentiles, and therefore he wrote in Greek. Matthew wrote in Hebrew for the Jews, that they might be edified in the faith. John began his gospel as he docs, because the Gentiles did not know, that God had a Son, nor how he was begotten.' So this writer.
4. I would observe farther, that in this work all the four gospels are largely quoted; and that the author frequently
in quarto doctrinam, in quinto miracula, in sexto passionem, in septimo resurrectionem et ascensionem ejus-Matthæus, sanctorum quidem, præcipue tamen peccatorum evangelista, qui non solum sermone, sed etiam ipsâ vitæ suæ correctione peccatoribus evangelium prædicavit. Nunquam enim telonarius constitutus, qui consueverat pecunias colligere perituras, factus fuisset evangelista, ut sermones conscriberet in æternum mansuros, nisi suo exemplo peccatores ad misericordiam pœnitentiæ invitaret, &c. Prolog. ib. p. 11.
P Quoniam Johannes, inter Gentes in exilio constitutus, Græco sermone evangelium causâ Gentium scripsit: quæ non cognoscebant, si Deus filium habet, aut quomodo genitum habet.-Matthæus autem evangelium Judæis Hebraico sermone conscripsit, sicut jam diximus supra, ut Judæi legentes ædificarentur in fide. Hom. 1. p. 11, et 12.
Sciendum est, quod Lucas quidem et Marcus statim in primis ponunt dæmoniacum curatum, &c. Hom. 21. p. 100. A. B.--Verius autem, quid sit abominatio desolationis, Lucas evangelista interpretatur. Nam in quo loco Marcus et præsens Matthæus ponunt: Cum videritis abominationem desola' tionis,' in ipso loco Lucas sic ponit: Cum videritis circumdari ab exercitu
compares the several accounts of the first three evangelists. Moreover, before he published this Comment upon St. Matthew, he had written an explication of St. Luke's gospel.
5. The book of the Acts of the Apostles is often cited in this work, and ascribed to Luke as the writer.
6. The author has quoted all or most of St. Paul's epistles, particularly that to the Hebrews.
Mr. Wetstein says, that" the author of this work was a Latin, and did not receive the epistle to the Hebrews; nevertheless he has plainly quoted it as the apostle's in one place, and referred or alluded to it in another.
7. He has also quoted the epistle of James several times: he seems to have supposed him to be James, the son of Alpheus, and consequently an apostle of Christ.
8. It is needless to refer to quotations of the first epistle of Peter, which was always received; but it may be worth observing, that he quotes his second epistle.
9. He has several times quoted the book of the Revelation. 10. This author therefore received all the same books of the New Testament which we do: and his respect for them is manifest.
11. Moreover he says, that as miracles are now ceased,
Jerusalem, tunc scitote, quia appropinquavit desolatio ejus.' Hom. 49. p. 202. B. Vid. et Hom. 50. p. 213. D. E.
Vid Hom. 9. p. 56. C. D.
• Unde etiam Lucas testatur
de illo, dicens: Primum quidem sermonem feci de omnibus, O Theophile, quæ cœpit Jesus facere et docere.' [Act. i. 1.] Hom. 4. p. 41. C.
De quo ait apostolus: Vivum est verbum Dei et efficax, &c. [Heb. iv. 12.] Hom. 26. p. 113. B. C. Vid. et Hom. 38. p. 159. D.
"Cæterum Latinus fuit, qui epistolam ad Hebræos non recepit. Prolegom. ad N. T. Tom. i. p. 81. ▾ See note '.
Sicut ait Jacobus: Si omnem legem adimpleas, &c. [Cap. ii. 10.] Hom. 35. p. 151. D. Vid. et Hom. 4. p. 41. A.
* Item Jacobum Alphæi lapidantes. Propter quæ omnia Jerusalem destructa est a Romanis. Hom. 41. p. 174. E.
› Propterea dicit Petrus in epistolâ suà de scripturarum obscuritate, quia non sicut voluit homo, loquutus est Spiritus, sed sicut voluit Spiritus, ita loquutus est homo. Hom. 44. p. 186. D. Vid. 2 Pet. i. 19-21.
* Quoniam autem tribus annis et sex mensibus protendendum est antichristi regnum, multæ scripturæ significant, maxime tamen in Revelatione suà Joannes. Hom. 49. in Matth. xxiv. p. 203. D. Vid. et Hom. 13. p. 74. C. Hom. 19. p. 90. A. Hom. 52. p. 218. E.
Et quare jubet in hoc tempore omnes christianos conferre se ad scripturas ? Quia in tempore hoc, ex quo obtinuit hæresis illa ecclesias, nulla probatio potest esse veræ christianitatis, neque refugium potest esse christianorum aliud volentium cognoscere fidei veritatem, nisi scripturæ divinæ. Antea enim multis modis ostendebatur, quæ esset ecclesia Christi, et quæ Gentilitas. Nunc autem nullo modo cognoscitur, quæ sit vera ecclesia Christi, nisi tantummodo per scripturas. Volens ergo quis cognoscere, quæ sit vera ecclesia Christi, unde cognoscat in tantà confusione similitudinis, nisi tantummodo per scripturas ?
there is no other way of knowing the truth, but by the scriptures. I transcribe his words below at large.
V. His division of the books of scripture is that, which is common with all christians in general; apostles and prophets. However, he has quoted some christian writings not
in our canon.
1. He has quoted the Recognitions three or four times. 2. He likewise quotes the Constitutions or Canons of the apostles.
3. What regard the author had for these two books does not clearly appear: but I think, that if he had respected them, as of authority, he would have quoted them oftener. 4. He says, That Joseph was absent, when the angel appeared to Mary, as related by Luke i. 26-38; and that this is said in a history, that is not unreasonable, nor incredible; for that was a proper circumstance.' Possibly, he speaks more advantageously of that book than it deserved: nevertheless, he gives it no authority.
5. He intimates, that in some secret or apocryphal books it was written, that Christ baptized John, after he had been baptized of him which, we may suppose, had been collected from words of Matth. iii. 14, 15.
VI. I shall now allege, or refer to, some select passages.
Item antea et per signa cognoscebantur, qui erant veri christiani, et qui falsi. Quomodo? Falsi quidem aut non poterant facere, sicut veri christiani; aut talia non poterant facere, qualia veri christiani-omnem utilitatem habentia. Et per hoc cognoscebantur, qui erant veri christiani, qui falsi. Nunc autem signorum operatio omnino levata est: magis autem et apud eos invenitur, qui falsi sunt christiani, fieri ficta. Hom. 49. p. 204. D. E.
b Hæc est ecclesia-quæ legatos Jesu Christi, id est, apostolos et prophetas, hoc est, scripta eorum, recepit. Hom. 29. p. 204. C.
Sed audi mysterium, quod Petrus apud Clementem exposuit. Hom. 26. p. 115. A.-Hoc et Petrus apud Clementem exponit. Hom. 49. p. 202. B.— Sicut autem Petrus apud Clementem exponit, antichristo etiam plenorum signorum faciendorum est danda potestas. Hom. 49. p. 204. E.-Unde et sapienter Petrus dicit apud Clementem, quomodo debet quis incessanter, quæ Dei sunt, cogitare et loqui. Hom. 51. p. 214. C. D.
Aliter certe, sicut apostoli interpretantur in libro Canonum qui est de episcopis. Hom. 13. p. 74. Vid. Const. Ap. 1. iii. c. 14.-Quomodo autem quidam sacerdotes ex hominibus ordinantur, manifeste in libro octavo canonum apostolorum dicitur. Hom. 53. p. 221. A. Conf. Const. Ap. 1. viii. cap. 2. e Nam sicut historia quædam non incredibilis, neque irrationalis, docet quando gesta sunt quæ refert Lucas, Joseph absens erat. Nec enim conveniens est putare præsente Joseph introisse angelum ad Mariam, ei dixisse quæ dixit, et Mariam respondisse quæcumque respondit. Hom. i. p. 24. D. E. f Dum autem dicenti Joanni, Ego a Modo interim sine,' ostendit, quia postea quamvis in secretioribus libris manifeste hoc baptizavit illum in aquâ, ille autem Joannem
te debeo baptizari,' respondit, Christus baptizavit Joannem ; scriptum sit. Et Joannes quidem in Spiritu. Hom. 4. p. 41. E.