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CYRIL, BISHOP OF ALEXANDRIA.
1. CYRIL, born at Alexandria, was made bishop of his native city in the year 412. Beside other things, he wrote Commentaries upon the five books of Moses, Isaiah, the twelve lesser prophets, and St. John's gospel.
2. It is needless to say, that all the books of the New Testament, commonly received, are frequently quoted by him I therefore observe only a few things.
3. The epistle to the Hebrews is often quoted in Cyril's works, as written by Paul.
4. The epistle of James also is often quoted by him; once after this manner: As says a disciple of Christ.' 5. The second epistle of Peter is quoted by Cyril sometimes.
6. Once at least he has quoted the second epistle of John: whether the third also I cannot say certainly.
7. The epistle of Jude is quoted by hime divers times. 8. The book of the Revelation is quoted as St. John's several times; once after this manner: This we are taught by the wise man John, who wrote the book of the Revelation, which has had the approbation of the fathers.' Possibly that expression may denote, that the Revelation was a book about which there were disputes or different opinions,
9. From these quotations we may perceive that Cyril received all the books of the New Testament which we do; nor did he receive any other.
a Vid. Cav. H. L. Du Pin, Bib. T. iv. Tillem. Mem. T. xiv. Fabr. Bib. Gr. T. viii. p. 553, &c. Pagi in Baron. an. 412. n. 23, 24, et passim. Basnag. Ann. 412. n. 12. et alibi. Et Conf. Socrat. H. E. 1. vii. c. 17. 13—15.
λεyor o Xoise μalnτns. De Adorat. in Spirit. et Verit. 1. i. T. i. p. 10. E. Par. 1638. c Αλλα τέτων ἁπάντων λυομενων, καθα και το σωτηρος διϊσχυρισατο μαθητης, ποταπες δει εὑρεθῆναι ἡμας. [2 Pet. iii. 11.] Ib. 1. ix. p. 288. A. Vid. et Glaph. in Exod. 1. iii. T. i. P. ii. p. 329. A. Thesaur. T. v. P. i. p. 368. C. De Rectâ Fid. T. v. P. ii. p. 77.
d Τοις τοιέτοις μηδε χαιρειν λεγετε, φησι τε σωτηρος ἡμων μαθητης, κ. λ. De Ador. in Spirit. et Verit. 1. viii. T. i. p. 255. E.
* Τι γαρ Ιεδας ἡμιν επιτέλλει, τε σωτηρος ὁ μαθητης; κ. λ. In Joan. Ev. 1. ix. T. iv. p. 798. C. Vid. et Thesaur. T. v. p. 302. C. De Rectâ Fid. T. v. P. ii. p. 77. f Ταύτης γαρ ἕνεκα της αιτίας οιηθείην αν
'O wv, ὁ ην, EOXOμEVOC. Glaph. in Exod. 1.
εγωγε, τον Ιωαννην ειπειν.
Β Καιτοι το της Αποκαλύψεως βιβλίον ημιν συντιθεὶς ὁ σοφος Ιωαννης, ὁ και ταις των πατέρων τετιμηται ψήφοις, κ. λ. De Adorat. in Sp. et Verit. 1. vi. T. i. p. 188. A.
10. We meet with the Lord's prayer in Cyril, exactly as we now have it in St. Matthew; except that it wants the doxology.
11. Cyril commends all the evangelists; but speaks of John as superior to the rest: he likewise calls him, the Divine.
12. He recommends the studying of the scriptures; and says, that from the holy prophets, apostles, and evangelists, we may learn how to attain to piety, and may secure to ourselves true peace of mind.'
13. I formerly referred" to several places of Cyril, for an explication of 2 Thess. ii. 1—12; and many good interpretations of texts of the New Testament may be found in him; but I forbear to take any notice of them at present.
14. How this bishop of Alexandria treated the Novatians, in his diocese, was shown some while ago," from Socrates.
I. His time. 11. His works. III. Books of the Old Testament received by him. IV. Books of the New Testament received by him. V. General titles and divisions of the scriptures. VI. Marks of respect for them, and exhortations to read them. VII. Explications of texts, and remarkable observations. VIII. The swift and wonderful progress of the Gospel.
I. THEODORET, as is computed, was born at Antioch, about 386; made bishop of Cyrus, in Syria, in the Euphratesian province, in 420, or 423; and died in 457, or
h De Adorat, in Sp. et Verit. 1. xiii. T. i. p. 471. E.
i In Joan. T. iv. p. 8. A.
Ο Θεολόγος. Ib. p. 87. E. 1 Glaph. in Gen. l. i. in. T. i. p. 2. Πηγας δε φαμεν εν τέτοις τες άγιες προφητας, αποτολες τε και ευαγγελιςας· οἷς ενομιλεντες σαφως τε, και εντέχνως, αρυόμεθα παρ' αυτων ζωοποιον τε και θειον λογον, αποχρωντως εχοντα προς το δυνασθαι διανευρεν εις ευσέβειαν τὰς ἡμετέρας ψυχάς, και τρυφην ἡμῖν εργαζεσθαι την πνευματικήν. In Es. T. ii. p. 671. B.
n See Vol. iii, ch. Ixi.
Ibid. p. 104.
a Vid. Sirmond. Garner. Cav. H. L. Fabric. Bib. Gr. T. vii. p. 430, &c. Du Pin, Bib. T. 4. Tillem. Mem. T. xv. Pagi Ann. 423. n. 8, 9, 427. n. 9, 10, 11, 18, 19, et passim. Basn. Ann. 424. n. 9, 10, et alibi.
II. Beside his Ecclesiastical History, and divers other useful works, he wrote Commentaries upon most parts of the sacred scripture; particularly, the five books of Moses, Joshua, the Judges, Ruth, Samuel, the Kings, the Chronicles, the Psalms, the Canticles, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Baruch, the Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, the twelve lesser prophets, and St. Paul's fourteen epistles.
Most of the writings ascribed to him are generally allowed to be his; but Pagi, and some others say, the letter to Sporacius was not written by him: and the late Mr. Barratier disputes the genuineness of the Dialogues on the Incarnation, and of the Philotheus; and he seems to me to have proved those Dialogues to be supposititious. As for the Philotheus, it is unquestioned that Theodoret wrote a book with that title; it is referred to, and quoted by him, several times, in his Ecclesiastical History. But Mr. Barratier asserts, that the Philotheus, which we have, was not written by Theodoret; he says, that divers things are wanting in our copy, which were in the original work, and other things have been added: moreover there are in it many mistakes in historical facts, unworthy of Theodoret, and contrary to what he writes in his Ecclesiastical History. Upon the whole, if Mr. Barratier has not demonstrated this point, what he says is material, and deserves the consideration of the learned. As both those writings, therefore, may be reckoned doubtful, I shall never take any thing from them, without giving particular notice of it.
III. 1. He speaks of the great care, which Ezra had taken, to publish exact copies of the sacred scriptures of the Old Testament, one hundred and fifty years before the Greek version had been made by the Seventy. In another place he supposeth, that Ezra restored all the books of the Old Testament, which had been lost. Though that be not a right sentiment, I observe, that the books here mentioned by him, are the five books of Moses, Joshua, the Judges, the Kings, Job, David's Psalms, the sixteen prophets and three books of Solomon, the Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and the Canticles; which passage alone is sufficient to show what was Theodoret's canon of the Old Testament.
b Ann. 428. n. 21. et seq.
c Dissertation sur quelques écrits
de Théodoret Evêque de Cyr, par Mr. Barratier. See Bibliothéque Germanique, T. xlviii. p. 50-99. d Eranistes, seu Polymorphus. Dialogi tres. T. iv. Paris. 1642. e Præf. in Psalm. T. i. p. 396. B.
f Præf. in Cant. T. i. p. 985.
2. He vindicates the spirituality, and the divine mystery, of the book of Canticles.
3. Theodoret explains Baruch; but his Commentary concludes with the end of the fifth chapter: he takes no notice of the epistle of Jeremiah, in the sixth chapter of that book, as it is divided by us.
4. In his Commentary upon Daniel, he takes no notice of the stories of Susannah, or of Bel and the Dragon, as is owned by Tillemont; but he has the Song of the Three Children, inserted in the third chapter of the book of Daniel.
5. He says, that Ezekiel was the last prophet, during the captivity; and that Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi, prophesied after the return. Again, he says: After the return from the captivity, the Jewish people had but three prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi: and then the gift of prophecy ceased among them: but after the coming of our Saviour, and after his ascension, the Holy Ghost came down upon the holy apostles, and by them the like gift was bestowed, not upon the Jews only, but also upon all the Gentiles that believed. In another place, he says:
As" Moses is the first who committed to writing the divine oracles; so Malachi is the last of the prophets that wrote.'
6. Whence it is apparent, that Theodoret's canon of the Old Testament was very little, if at all, different from that of the Jews.
7. We plainly perceive, from Theodoret as well as from others, that what we call the books of the Kings, were in those times generally called, the books of the Kingdoms.
8. He thinks it probable, that the books of the Chronicles were written after the return from the Babylonish captivity.
IV. I. It is almost needless to observe, that Theodoret received four gospels only; of which we saw good proof formerly or, that he received the book of the Acts, and
& Præf. in Cant. p. 984.
i Theodoret. Art. xlv. Mem. T. xv.
h Vid. T. ii. p. 285, 286.
k Vid. T. ii. p. 578, &c. m In Ezech. ib. p. 501. A. B. In Judic. T. i. p. 208. B.
In Ezech. T. ii. p. 304. D.
Præf. in Malach. T. ii. p. 931. B.
Conf. p. 229, 230.
P In Paral. T. i. p. 364. A. B. 4 Ταυτα οἱ τεσσαρες ευαγγελιςαι συνέγραψαν. Ep. 130. T. iii. p. 1003. C. Μαρτυρες οἱ τεσσαρες ευαγγελιςαι· ἅπαντες γαρ συμφωνως τετο διδασκεσιν. Ep. 145. p. 1019. D. Και διδασκει ήμας διαῤῥηδην των ἱερων ευαγγελίων ἡ τετρακτυς. Ep. 145. p. 1026. Β.
See Vol. i. ch. xiii.
ascribed it to St. Luke; or that he bad received fourteen epistles of the apostle Paul, upon which he wrote Commentaries, still extant, as before mentioned.
2. Theodoret has digested St. Paul's epistles, according to the order of time in which they were written; and has observed, likewise, the places from which they were sent. 'I will show,' says he, the order of the apostle's epistles: The blessed Paul wrote fourteen epistles; but" I do not think that he assigned them that order which we now have in our Bibles. The epistle written by the divine Paul to the Romans, stands first in order; nevertheless, it is the last of those which were sent from Asia, Macedonia, and Achaia: the two epistles first written are, the two epistles to the Thessalonians; next, the two epistles to the Corinthians: the fifth, in order of time, is the first to Timothy ; the next, is that to Titus: the epistle to the Romans is the seventh. The other epistles were sent from Rome; the first of these I take to be that to the Galatians. From Rome likewise he sent the epistles to the Philippians, and that to the Ephesians, and to the Colossians, in which last he also mentions Onesimus: for which reason the epistle to Philemon may be supposed to have been written before, for in it he desires, that Onesimus may be received; afterwards he wrote the epistle to the Hebrews, and from Rome, as the conclusion shows: " They of Italy salute you." The last of all his epistles is the second to Timothy. This is the order of the epistles in point of time. The epistle to the Romans has been placed first, as containing the most full and exact representation of the christian doctrine, in all its branches; but some say, that it has been so placed out of respect to the city to which it was sent, as presiding over the whole world,'
3. Theodoret's preface to his Commentary upon the epistle to the Ephesians, deserves to be carefully read. At the end of that preface, he says: The former part of the epistle contains the doctrine of the gospel; the latter part, a moral admonition.' That may be said in some measure of most of St. Paul's epistles; but it is more especially manifest in this.
4 In a note upon Eph. i. 15, 16, he says: Some argued gospel, and the history of the Acts. Ούτος και το θειον συνέγραψε ευαγγελιον, και την ίςοριαν των πράξεων. The book of the Acts is very often quoted by Theodoret, and as written by St. Luke.
Præf. in Ep. S. P. T. iii. p. 2. D. et p. 3, 4, 5, 6.
· Την δε ταξιν, ἣν εν τοις βιβλιοις έχεσιν, εκ αυτον ἡγεμαι πεποιηκέναι, Ib. p. 2. D. Pr. in Ep. ad Eph. T. iii. p. 292. C.
T. iii. p. 293. D.