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from thence, that the apostle had not yet seen the Ephesians, when he wrote that epistle to them;' but he does not allow their argument to be good.
5. It may be here observed, that Theodoret always cites the epistle to the Ephesians by that title.
6. In the preface to the epistle to the Colossians, he says: Some have been of opinion, that the apostle had not seen those christians, when he wrote to them: and they endeavoured to support their own opinion by these expressions, ch. ii. 1; but he says, they do not rightly interpret the words, the meaning of which is, that he was not concerned for them only, but likewise for those who had not seen him; he says, therefore: I would ye should know, how great concern I have for you, and for them of Laodicea; and for as many as have not seen my face in the flesh.' He farther argues it to be very likely, from the history in the Acts, that the apostle had been at Colosse: so he argues again, in his comment upony Col. ii. 1; and2 iv. 10.
7. Upon Col. iv. 16, he says: Some have hence imagined, that the apostle had also written to the Laodiceans, and they had forged such an epistle; but the apostle does not say the epistle to the Laodiceans, but from Laodicea; for they had written to him about some things: probably, they had informed him of some things amiss among the Colossians; whilst the like faults were to be found with them also therefore, he directs, that this epistle should be likewise read to them.'
8. It is surprising to observe, how seldom Theodoret has quoted the catholic epistles-they are not quite overlooked; they are quoted but all his quotations of them might be placed, at full length, in a little room. It was formerly shown, that there are but few quotations of the catholic epistles, either in Theodoret or Chrysostom.
9. Hed quotes the epistle of St. James. In his comment upon Gal. i. 19, he says, that James, the Lord's brother, was not so literally; nor was he the son of Joseph, by a former marriage, as some have thought; but he was the son of Cleophas, who had married the sister of our Lord's mother: he was, therefore, cousin-german to our Lord.
10. Theodoret has several times quoted the first epistle
* T. iii. p. 342, 343.
a Ibid. p. 63. C.
d In Ps. T. i. p. 496. A.
y Ibid. p. 350. D.
b See Vol. iv. ch. lxxxv.
f Vid. in Cant. T. i. p. 1058. A. et Ep. ad. Rom. T. iii. p. 81. C.
2 Ibid. p. 262. C. c Ibid.
e T. iii. p. 268. A.
1082. B. In Es. T. ii. p. 93. A. In In I. ad Tim. p. 472. A.
of St. Peter; and once, eithers 2 Pet. ii. 22, or Prov. xxvi. 11.
11. The first epistle of John is thus quoted by him: And the divine apostle John, at the beginning of his epistle, says: "That which we have seen, and our hands have handled." And, in one of the Dialogues on the Incarnation, if it be genuine, the first of St. John is thus quoted Hear the great John, in his catholic epistle, saying.' This epistle is quoted again in the epistle to Sporacius.
12. I do not recollect any quotation of the Revelation, in the unquestioned works of Theodoret. In a passage of1 Athanasius, inserted in the forementioned Dialogues, the Revelation is cited; but the genuineness of those Dialogues is disputed, as before seen: and, if they were unquestionably genuine, it might not follow, that Theodoret received the book of the Revelation, unless he had himself cited it upon some other occasion. The Revelation is, once or twice, slightly cited, in the fifth volume of Theodoret's works, or the Appendix, published by Garnier; but it is not certainly known that those writings are Theodoret's. It appears to me, therefore, probable, that Theodoret did not receive the book of the Revelation.
13. Here it may not be amiss for the reader to compare Theodoret with Cyril of Alexandria: Cyril, who lived in Egypt, received the Revelation, and quotes the catholic epistles very freely; but Theodoret, who lived in Syria, either rejected the Revelation, or was shy of quoting it, and likewise cites the catholic epistles very seldom.
14. Upon the whole, Theodoret received the four gospels, the Acts, Paul's fourteen epistles, the epistle of James, the first of Peter, and the first of John; but there is no plain proof, that he received the book of the Revelation, or the other four catholic epistles: insomuch, that there is some reason to think, that his canon of the New Testament was the same with that of the Syrian christians.
V. General titles and divisions of the scriptures, used by Theodoret, are such as these: the "ancient scripture, and the gospels; gospels, prophets, and apostles: prophets, and apostles; the books of the sacred gospels,
8 In Dan. T. ii. p. 572. D. p. 287.
h Hær. Fab. l. v. c. 15. T. iv. Vid. Dial. 1. T. iv. p. 29. C. Dial. 1. T. iv. p. 39. C.
* T. iv. p. 701. C.
m Vid. Adv. Macedon. Dial. 4. T. v. p. 374. A. et p. 378. A.
"In Gen. T. i. p. 31. C. D.
P Hær. Fab. Compend. T. iv. p. 187.
Ep. 109. T. iii. p. 978. C.
9 Ep. 17. T. iii. p. 91. D.
the writings of the holy apostles, and the oracles of the thrice blessed prophets; evangelists, and apostles; prophets; and Moses, the chief of the prophets.
VI. Terms of respect are such as these: the divine scripture; the divine apostle; as says the most excellent Paul; the most wise Paul; oracles of the spirit; the Lord, in the divine gospels; the voice of the sacred gospels; divine oracles; the divine apostle, in the epistle to the Hebrews; the blessed Paul; great Peter [in the Acts;] the most excellent Peter, chief of the apostles; thrice blessed Luke, in the Acts; which the blessed Matthew teaches by the genealogy; the" great and excellent Paul, master of the whole world; the most wise Paul, the excellent architect of the churches.
What he asserts, he proves from the scriptures; he likewise recommends the study of the scriptures, and shows the benefit of it. They, he says, who will compare the divine oracles with human writings, may easily discern the superior excellence of the former: so he writes in an argument with heathen people. Writing to a woman, who had buried a hopeful son, he says: 'Hey sends her some consolatory thoughts, taken partly from reason, partly from scripture; God having given us all manner of consolation by the divine oracles: but he needs not enlarge, because she had been, from her childhood, instructed in the divinely inspired scriptures, and had ordered her conversation by them; and she needed no other instruction. Recollect, then, those words, which teach us to moderate the passions; which promise eternal life; which declare the abolishing of death; which assure us of the general resurrection of all men.'
VII. I shall add some explications of scripture, and some remarkable observations.
1. By the "spirit that moved upon the face of the waters," Gen. i. 2, he thinks to be meant, not the Holy Spirit, but the air, or wind.
2. God, foreseeing how Adam would act, and that he would become mortal by transgression, gave him a suitable nature, and made the sexes.
Gr. Aff. Serm. 4. T. iv. p. 541. B.
κορυφαιε των αποτολων εν ταις Πραξεσι. Τ. i. p. 402. D.
T. i. p. 67. B.
* Το θεσπέσιο Πέτρε, το
Και ὁ μεγας δε της οικεμενης διδασκαλος, ὁ θεσπέσιος Παυλος. Ep. 83. Τ. iii. p. 958. B.
w De Provid. Or, ix. T. iv. p. 425. A.
ν Παυλος, ὁ πανσοφος, ὁ των εκκλησιων αριςος αρχιτεκτων. Ep. 146. Τ. iii. p. 1033. D. * Gr. Aff. S. 4. T. iv. p. 541. C. * In Gen. T. i. p. 8. D.
Ep. 17. T. ii, p. 912. A. a Ibid. p. 33. D.
3. The doctrine of the Trinity was not clearly taught the Jews, because of their imperfection. If it had been so revealed, they would have made it an occasion for Polytheism.
4. By "the eye-witnesses and ministers of the word," Luke i. 2, the evangelist does not mean ministers of God the word, but of the doctrine of God the word.
5. Upon Is. ix. 1, he says, that Galilee was the native country of Christ's apostles; and there he wrought many miracles, particularly his first miracle of turning water into wine, as is related by John the divine.
6. Upon Rom. i. 4, Theodoret says, that during his life here on earth, Christ was not reputed to be God, either by the Jews, or by the apostles.
7. Upon 1 Cor. xiii. 7, he says: The Spirit is still given to those who are baptized, though not visibly: but then the baptized immediately spake with tongues, and wrought miracles; whereby they were confirmed in the belief of the truth of the doctrine of the gospel: therefore, I think, miracles were not wrought by christians in Theodoret's time.
8. Again, upon 1 Cor. xii. 9, Because of the prevailing infidelity, many miracles were then wrought, to convince men of the truth. That miracles of healing were then wrought, giving health to the sick, feet to the lame, and eyes to the blind, is manifest from the history of the Acts."
9. Theodoret seems to have supposed, that the apostle Paul received the whole doctrine of the gospel immediately from heaven; for, upon Gal. i. 18, he says, 'that Paul had been taught of God, and needed not any human instruction; though he made a visit to Peter, and showed him due respect, as the chief of the apostles.'
VIII. Theodoret admirably represents the success of the doctrine of the gospel, or the progress of the christian religion, especially in his books against the Gentiles? I must transcribe some passages, and refer to others.
1. The all-wise Deity committed the culture of a bar
b Ibid. p. 170. C. C Λογον γαρ ενταυθα ε τον Θεον λογον καλει, αλλα την τ8 θεσ λογω διδασκαλίαν. In Es. T. ii. p. 13. C. a T. ii. p. 41. C. f Προ μεν τε ταυρε και το παθες, ὁ δεσποτης Χριτος 8 μονον τοις αλλοις Ιεδαίοις,αλλα και αυτοις αποτόλοις, εκ εδοκει ειναι Θέος, κ. λ. Τ. iii. p. 11. B.
e Ib. D.
T. iii. p. 179. D. Δια γαρ την τηνικαυτα κατεχεσαν απιςιαν, πολλα τοιαυτα εθαυματεργεν εις εκπληξιν, δια τ8των αυτες ποδηγεντες προς την αληθειαν, κ. λ. Τ. iii. p. 180. B. C,
iT. iii. p. 367. D.
* Hær. Fab. in Prol. T. iv. p. 190.
ren world to a few men; and those fishermen and publicans, and one tentmaker.'
By this, and other passages, it may be perceived, that Theodoret did not reckon Barnabas an apostle, in the highest meaning of that word.
2. Upon Gen. xlix. 9, 10, 11, he says: The apostles were Jews; and not only they, but the seventy disciples also; and the three thousand, whom the chief of the apostles caught in his net at once; and five thousand; and many myriads of whom the thrice blessed James makes mention to the most excellent Paul. See Acts xxi. 20.
3. He says, thatm by the holy doctrine of the apostles, God had made the earth a heaven; having converted many, in every nation, from the pursuit of earthly things, and disposed them to embrace a heavenly conversation.
4. From Theodoret's books against the Gentiles it appears, that the heathen people often expressed a contempt of the holy scriptures, because" they were not eloquent. Theodoret, therefore, says, he will compare the most celebrated lawgivers of the Greeks with our fishermen, and publicans, and tentmakers, and show the difference: for the laws of the former were soon forgotten after the death of those who enacted them; but the laws delivered by fishermen have flourished and prevailed, and have been received, not only by Greeks and Romans, but also by Scythians, Persians, and other barbarians: and, indeed,' says he, the doctrine of the divine oracles is worthy of God, and approves itself to the judgment of wise and thoughtful men. There is much more reason to hearken to the apostles and prophets, than to Plato; for in them there is nothing impure, nothing fabulous and incredible; nothing but what is worthy of God; nothing but what is holy and useful: between Moses the lawgiver, and David, and Job, and Isaiah, and Jeremiah, and the whole choir of the prophets; and between Matthew also, and John, and Luke, and Mark, and Peter, and Paul, and the whole college of the apostles, is a full agreement: they all teach the same doctrine; there are no differences among them: and they teach things useful for all, for men and women, and people of every condition; what ought to be done, what should be avoided: which must be approved by all reasonable men; for religion is the concern of all. In
1 In Gen. T. i. p. 74. C.
m In Es. T. ii. p. 53. A.
Gr. Affect. in Prol. T. iv. p. 461. et ib. Serm. i. p. 465. D.
P Ibid. p. 463. C.
• Ibid. p. 463. B. C.