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Joshua; the Judges; Ruth; the book of the Kings, and the Chronicles; the book of Psalms; three books of Solomon, the Proverbs, Canticles, and Ecclesiastes; the twelve prophets; and the four larger prophets. Here is no particular mention of Ezra : uth that book is elsewher expressly quoted, with the Chronicles.
2. In another place, having mentioned the historical facts of the Old Testament, to the settlement of the Israelites in the land of Canaan, he says: After that, God raised up to them prophets; David the king, Samuel, the great Elias, and his disciple Elisha; and the twelve; and the four greater prophets, who prophesied of the coming of the Lord Christ.'
3. The book of Job is quoted several times, and as divine scripture.
4. The Psalms are often quoted, and called divine scripture. David is styled by him," the 'great David,' king and prophet; and he says, that" the book of Psalms was composed by him.
5. The book of Ecclesiastes is quoted by him with marks of the highest respect: As, the divine scripture says; by the divine Solomon.' In another place, he seems to diminish Solomon, saying, that he wrote the Proverbs, the Songs, and the Ecclesiastes; having received from God the grace of wisdom to instruct men in the right conduct of life: but he did not receive the grace of prophecy.' Nevertheless, I suppose that Cosmas does not deny Solomon the gift of inspiration; but only the gift of prophecy, or foretelling things to come: in the general sense of the word, therefore, he was a prophet, being moved by the Holy Ghost.
6. Having collected testimonies out of the twelve prophets, and last of all out of Malachi, he proceeds immediately to the New Testament.
7. And he says, that the books of the Old Testament were written in Hebrew.
III. The books of the New Testament, received by Cosmas, are, the four gospels, the Acts, St. Paul's fourteen epistles, and some of the catholic epistles.
1. In the fifth book, where he quotes the books of scrip
Ετι δε και ή προςαξις Κυρυ εγγραφως εν ταις Παραλιπομεναις, και εν τῳ Εσδρα τεταγμενη. L. viii. p. 306. Α.
KL. ii. p. 128. A. L. iii. p. 167. D. et passim.
i L. v. p. 207. E. 1 L. ii. p. 158. B. n L. v. p. 238. D.
L. ii. p. 134. B. 9 Vid. I. v. p. 237-241.
m L. v. p. 224. B.
P L. v. p. 139. E.
L. vii. p. 275. D.
ture one after another, and gives some account of each book, he says: Matthew is the first evangelist who wrote a gospel. There being a persecution, when Stephen was stoned, and he also being about to go from that place, the believers entreated him to leave with them a written instruction, with which request he complied: and, being well acquainted, especially with the abode of the Lord in flesh here on this earth, he set before them a pattern of an excellent institution, and of an heavenly and divine life and conversation:' and what follows.
2. Mark, the second evangelist, wrote a gospel at Rome, by the direction of Peter.'
3. Luke" is the third evangelist, who, having observed many endeavouring to write gospels, and inventing things out of their own heads, wrote to his own disciple Theophi lus, to guard him against such accounts.' And here Cosmas likewise mentions the Acts; in which as well as in his gospel, he says, Luke gives an account of our Lord's ascension into heaven.
4. I would observe here, that, from several places of this work, it appears, this author had in his copies, the first and second chapters of St. Matthew's gospel, and the history of our Lord's nativity, as recorded by St. Luke.
5. The fourth and chief of the evangelists is John the divine who was more beloved by Christ than all the rest, who leaned upon the Lord's breast, and from thence, as from an overflowing fountain, drew mysteries: to whom, when he dwelt at Ephesus, were delivered by the faithful the writings of the other evangelists. Receiving them, he said, that what they had written was well written; but some things were omitted by them, which were needful to be related. And being desired by the faithful, he also published his writing, as a kind of supplement to the rest, containing such things as these: the wedding at Cana; the history of Nicodemus; the woman of Samaria; the nobleman [or courtier, John iv. 46-54]; the man blind from his birth; Lazarus; the indignation of Judas at the woman that anointed the Lord with ointment; the Greeks that came to Jesus; his washing his disciples' feet; and suitable instructions upon several occasions; and the promise of the Comforter; and concerning the deity of Christ, expressly and
5 Οὗτος πρωτος των ευαγγελιτων συγγραψάμενος ευαγγελιον, κ. λ. L. v. p. Πετρε εν Ρώμη εντειλάμενε αυτ8. p. 246. D. Vid. l. iii. p. 147. A. p. 176. E. 1. v.
" P. 247. A. C.
p. 245. C. D. E. p. 247. et passim.
* Οὗτος ὁ θεολογος Ιωαννης, ὁ εξαρχος των ευαγγελιτων. p. 248.
clearly at the beginning, and promising that as the foundation of his work all which things had been omitted by the
6. In the next place are large quotations of discourses of Peter, recorded in the Acts of the Apostles.
7. Afterwards follows they great apostle Paul, the great master of the church, and leader of the heavenly band, who had Christ speaking in him: of whose fourteen epistles Cosmas says, it is not needful for him to allege all the places that are to his purpose. However, he gives a general account of them, and in this order: to the Romans; to the Corinthians; to the Galatians; to the Ephesians; Philippians; Colossians; Thessalonians; Hebrews; Timothy; Titus; Philemon.' He says, the epistle to the Hebrews was written in Hebrew; and was translated into Greek, as is said, by Luke, or Clement. In like manner the gospel of Matthew,' that is, as I understand him, was written in Hebrew; for I do not judge it necessary to suppose, that Cosmas intended to intimate, that St. Matthew's gospel had the same translators as the epistle to the Hebrews; or to say any thing at all about the authors of that translation: but only that Matthew's gospel was written in Hebrew, in like manner as Paul's epistle to the Hebrews.
8. He says, in another place, the epistle to the Hebrews was written to the Jews who believed in Christ.
9. Cosmas takes but little notice of the catholic epistles, except it be to answer objections, which were brought thence against some of his assertions. And in one place he says expressly: 'Ia forbear to allege arguments from the catholic epistles; because, from ancient time, the church has looked upon them as of doubtful authority. And of all who have written Commentaries upon the divine scriptures, not one has taken notice of the catholic epistles: and all who have given an account of the canonical books of divine scripture, have spoken of them as doubtful, particularly Irenæus, bishop of Lyons, a man of great note, and eminent piety, who lived not long after the apostles; and Eusebius Pamphili; and Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria: and Amphilochius, bishop of Iconium, friend of the blessed Basil, in his Iambics to Seleucus, expressly declares them
2 P. 253. C.
* P. 249-251.
P. 254, 255.
b P. 255. C.
ε 'Ο δε αποςολος Παυλος προς τες εκ των Εβραίων πεπιτευκότας εις Χριςον γεγραφηκεν, κ. λ. L. vii. p. 279. D. Σιωπωμεν δε ότι τας καθολικας ανεκαθεν ἡ εκκλησια αμφιβαλλομενας εχει, κ. λ. L. vii. p. 292. Β. Ε.
In like manner Severian, bishop of Gabala, in his book against the Jews, rejects them; forasmuch as most men say, they are not writings of apostles, but of some others, who were elders only. And, agreeably hereto, Eusebius Pamphili in his Ecclesiastical History says, that at Ephesus are two monuments, one of John the evangelist, and another of John an elder, who wrote two of the catholic epistles; even the second and third, inscribed after this manner: "the Elder to the elect Lady; and the Elder to the beloved Gaius:" and both he and Irenæus say, that but two are written by apostles, even the first of Peter, and the first of John and some say, that neither are they written by apostles, but by elders only. They argue in this manner: The epistles of John are numbered, the first, second, and third; as being all three written by one and the same person. Others receive the epistle of James, together with those two [that is, the first of Peter, and the first of John]. Among the Syrians are found only the three before mentioned; I mean, the epistle of James, the epistle of Peter, and the epistle of John: they have not the rest. Upon the whole, it does not become a perfect christian, to endeavour to confirm any thing by doubtful books; when the books in the Testament acknowledged by all, have sufficiently declared all things needful to be known, concerning the heavens, and the earth, and the elements, and the whole christian doctrine.'
Upon this passage of Cosmas, many remarks might be made; I shall mention these following:
(1.) His expressions are in some places ambiguous, and therefore obscure it is not always certain, whether he intends to be understood of all the catholic epistles in general, or of some only.
(2.) Cosmas betrays an inclination to represent all the catholic epistles as doubtful, and to diminish their authority:
(3.) But that is unreasonable: all ancient christians, in general, received one epistle of Peter, and one epistle of John.
(4.) Cosmas says, that not one of the ancient commentators of sacred scripture had written a Commentary upon the catholic epistles: which, as Montfauçon observes, is not
* Ου χρη ουν τον τελειον χρισιανον εκ των αμφιβαλλομενων επιτηρίζεσθαι, των ενδιαθετων και κοινως όμολογεμένων γραφων ἱκανῶς παντα μηνυοντων περι τε των ερανων και της γης, και των τοιχείων, και παντος τα δόγματος των χρισιανων. Ibid. p. 292. Ε.
Hic sane Cosmas non accurate rem agit.-Didymus enim Alexandrinus
rightly said; for Didymus of Alexandria wrote Commen taries upon all the seven catholic epistles.
(5.) It is not needful for us now to consider the accounts here given of the sentiment of Irenæus, Eusebius, Athanasius, Amphilochius and others; or to examine whether these accounts be right or not: forasmuch as their testimony to the sacred scripture has been already observed, in their several chapters.
(6.) The seven catholic epistles were all well known in Egypt, where Cosmas lived, and were all received by many. So much is manifest from himself.
(7.) The christians in Syria received three only of the. catholic epistles. Of this Cosmas speaks positively it may be supposed, therefore, that it is a thing about which he was well assured, and for the truth of which he may be relied upon. So thoughts Montfaucon and Beausobre.
(8.) Though Cosmas was shy of quoting the catholic epistles, because, from the second epistle of Peter a strong objection was brought against one of his opinions; yet I think, he must have received three of them; the epistle of James, the first of Peter, and the first of John; for, to the epistle of James he has a respectful reference in the introduction to his work, which is to this purpose: In the name of the one God-from whom descends to us, from above, every good and perfect gift.' See James i. 17. And he quotes the conclusion of the first epistle of Peter, the church," which is at Babylon, saluteth you," as a proof of the early progress of the christian religion, without the bounds of the Roman empire; by which, therefore, we perceive, that by Babylon he did not understand Rome. He has also quotedTM I Pet. i. 12.
(9.) We here see plainly expressed, that opinion of the ancient christians, that no book, doctrinal or epistolary, integros in septem illas epistolas Commentarios edidit, teste Hieronymo. Præf. in Cosm. Topogr. p. 17.
Secundam item Petri, et epistolam Judæ apostoli, perinde atque secundam et tertiam Joannis, a Syris, atque adeo ab Antiochenis, non admissas fuisse, diserte docet Cosmas Egyptius, qui tempore Justiniani Imperatoris scribebat. Sic autem habet, p. 292.-Hinc manifeste vides, etiam tempore Justiniani Imperatoris, ex catholicis illis epistolis non nisi tres apud Syros, atque adeo in ecclesia Antiochenâ, receptas fuisse. Montf. Diatrib. in Synops. S. S. ap. Chrys. T. 6. p. 309. Cet auteur, qui étoit Egyptien, et qui florissoit dans le vi. siècle, assure que les Syriens n'ont que la 1. epitre de S. Jean, la 1. de Pierre, et celle de Jaques: qu'à l'égard des quatre autres, elles ne se trouvent pas même dans leurs églises. Hist. de Manich. T. i. p. i Ομοιως και εν ταις καθολικαις το ειρημενον, εν η ερανοι πυρ8μevol Avondovrai, K. λ. [2 Pet. iii. 12.] L. vii. p. 290. E. Conf. p. 291. E. * L. 113. A. 'L. ii. p. 147. E. m L. vii. p. 289. A. VOL. V.