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sand Missouri troops, under Gen. Price; from twelve to fifteen thousand men from Arkansas, Louisiana and Texas, under Gen. McCulloch, and about five or six thousand Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw and other Indians, with two white regiments-in all about seven thousand-under Albert Pike. One Rebel account states that Van Dorn's force in this expedition was reckoned as high as thirty-five thousand. The Union force did not much exceed one-third of that number.

Confident in their numerical strength, and believing, as they admitted, that their force was at least double that under Curtis, the Rebels advanced with the hope of annihilating our army. Coming up with Sigel's force at Bentonville, on the morning of the 6th of March, they compelled that General to fall back toward the main army-a movement which he executed with scarcely any loss, having sent forward his trains, while a well-managed battery protected his retreat, inflicting severe injury upon the enemy whenever he approached within shelling distance. A march of ten miles brought Sigel's force. to the west end of Pea Ridge, a range of high ground just beyond Sugar Creek, where the main army of Curtis lay. It was now night, and Curtis, who had all day been busily preparing to meet the enemy, made his disposition for the eventful morrow. His force in the hollow had fronted to the south, and Sigel, with Osterhaus' division, now occupied a position. about three miles to the west. The Rebel forces crossed the creek still further west, and occupied the higher ground northward and directly in the rear, his two main bodies also separated by about three miles distance- the troops under Price opposite Curtis, and those under McCulloch and McIntosh over against Sigel. A change of front was promptly made, bringing the armies face to face-Curtis commanding the right, now moved to higher ground two miles northward, and Sigel the left.

The enemy attacked our right on the morning of the 7th, and the battle was fiercely maintained throughout the day, with severe loss on both sides. The area fought over did not exceed three-fourths of a mile in diameter. Our right was finally driven back for nearly a mile, the enemy encamping on

the field they had thus won. McCulloch, meanwhile, on the left, had in the morning begun a movement south-eastwardly, to form a junction with Price, so as to surround Curtis, and cut off all retreat. Sigel endeavored to check this detected movement by sending forward three pieces of flying artillery, with a cavalry support, to delay McCulloch's advance until his infantry could come up. An overwhelming force of Rebel cavalry bore down upon this detachment, dispersing it and capturing our guns, while McCulloch's infantry gained shelter in a wood beyond a large open field. This wood and field became the scene of a prolonged contest between Osterhaus and McCulloch. The timely arrival of Davis with reënforcements turned the tide, and the enemy was utterly routed, with heavy loss, McCulloch and McIntosh being among the killed.

The position which had been gained by Van Dorn's left was naturally a strong one, cutting off our retreat, and here he concentrated his entire forces. On that chilly night the men of Curtis' army, looking forward to the coming day, might well have been disheartened. Their ultimate defeat must have seemed almost certain. With sunrise the batteries of Price reopened, and with terrible effect on the extreme right, held by Carr's division, and now supported by Davis. The position of the enemy being clearly disclosed, Sigel, with quick insight and prompt action, skillfully disposed his batteries so as to bear directly in the face of the enemy's right, causing great. destruction to the latter, with little loss to himself. His thirty pieces silenced battery after battery of the enemy, making terrible havoc. For more than two hours, with admirable tact and unslackened activity, this cannonading was kept up, batteries and infantry approaching nearer and nearer the concentrated foe, until at length Curtis ordered his infantry to charge the enemy in his last shelter of the woods, and, after a short but deadly struggle, the Rebel forces gave way and scattered in confusion and utter rout. The total loss of Curtis, mostly on the 7th, is stated at 1,312 in killed, wounded and missing. The losses of Van Dorn were manifestly much greater, but they are not accurately known.

With this victory, followed six days later by the capture of

New Madrid by Gen. Pope, the conflict in Missouri was substantially brought to an end. The war was now transferred into Arkansas, and from a contest on the part of the Rebels to force an unwilling people into fellowship with a confederacy of traitors, it had now become a movement of the Union armies— ere long to prove successful-for restoring peace, order and law, under the constitutional Government, in a State temporarily overborne by the tide of Secessionism.

Soon after the occupation of Nashville, on the 25th of February, Gen. Buell concentrated his army, for the most part, at and near that city. On the 11th of March, an order of the President placed the forces of Gens. Halleck, Hunter and Buell, under the chief command of Halleck alone, consolidating in one the respective departments of the two first-named commanders, together with so much of that of Gen. Buell "as lies west of a north and south line indefinitely drawn through Knoxville," the whole to be called the Department of the Mississippi. The troops under Buell were mostly from Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky. Among his Generals commanding divisions were A. McD. McCook, George H. Thomas, Ormsby M. Mitchell, Wm. Nelson and Thos. L. Crittenden.

An expedition under Gen. Grant was speedily organized, to proceed up the Tennessee river, the enemy having taken up his defensive line with the Charleston and Memphis Railroad as a base. Grant's new " Army of the Tennessee," was mainly composed of troops from Illinois, Ohio, Indiana and Iowa, with regiments from several other States. Numerous steamboats were employed for the transportation of these forces, which were accompanied by two gunboats. The divisions into which Grant's army was organized, each with its proportion of infantry, cavalry and artillery, were commanded, respectively, by Gens. W. T. Sherman, C. F. Smith, B. M. Prentiss, S. A. Hurlbut, J. A. McClernand and L. Wallace.

On the 5th of March, Gen. Beauregard, having tarried awhile at Richmond, after leaving Centreville about the 1st of February, assumed command of the Rebel "Army of the Mississippi," with his headquarters first at Jackson, Tenn., on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad. The Rebel forces, under the sub

ordinate commands of Bragg, Polk, Cheatham, and others, were chiefly in camp at Corinth, Miss., with detachments at several points on the railroads. This place is at the junction of the Mobile and Ohio and the Memphis and Charleston Railroads, in an uneven country, and not far from the line dividing the States of Tennessee and Mississippi.

Gen. Grant landed his forces at Savannah, Tenn., a small place on the Tennessee river, about one hundred and seventy miles above Fort Henry, and about twenty-five miles from the Mississippi State line. His original force was increased by a considerable body of infantry from Ohio. As many as eightytwo steamers, laden with troops, had arrived at Savannah by the 13th of March. These "invaders were received with enthusiastic demonstrations of joy by the inhabitants of that part of Tennessee through which they passed.


Soon after the arrival of Gen. Grant in person, the army was advanced seven miles up the river to Pittsburg Landing. Gen. Buell was ordered by Halleck to effect a junction with Grant. Little alacrity, however, was shown by Buell in complying with this order, so manifestly requiring prompt execution in view of the greatly superior Rebel force known to be in front of Grant. It was not until the 28th of March that Buell left Nashville. On the 30th, the rear of his army was at Columbia, but eighty-two miles distant from Savannah. This distance was passed over by leisurely marches, averaging less than twelve miles a day, while Beauregard was putting in execution his well-devised plan for attacking Grant in overwhelming force before Buell should come to his support.

On the 3d of April, Gen. Johnston issued a brief address to the Army of the Mississippi, to inspirit them in executing the purpose formed, "to offer battle to the invaders," and the Rebel forces were put in motion toward Pittsburg Landing. Orders were at the same time issued, dividing the army into three corps, the first to be commanded by Polk, the second by Bragg, and the third by Hardee. John C. Breckinridge was given the command of a reserve division. The chief command seems to have been jointly held by Johnston and Beauregard, until the former fell, early during the first day's engagement.

Before six o'clock on the morning of Sunday, the 6th day of April, a party of the Rebels attacked Grant's left-that officer being then absent at Savannah, superintending preparations for receiving and crossing over the anxiously-expected forces of Buell. At eight o'clock the enemy advanced in strong force, and captured Gen. Prentiss, with two thousand prisoners. Hurlbut came to the support of the retreating division of Prentiss, and temporarily checked the enemy's advance. Part of Sherman's force, on the right of Prentiss, was routed, and a heavy column was thrown against McClernand's division in the center, which, before noon, was driven backward to the line of Hurlbut. The fight was bravely maintained, and the force attacking McClernand was once temporarily driven back for some distance; but the whole of our army was compelled gradually to give way. Only the most invincible courage of the men, with cool and determined leadership, could save the army now from utter defeat. The division commanded by Gen. W. H. L. Wallace, (in the absence of Gen. C. F. Smith,) on the right, had, with that of Hurlbut on the left, occupied positions next the river, and on these, with one of Sherman's brigades on the extreme left, now fell the weight of the Rebel advance. Four times attempts were made by the Rebels to charge on the gallant forces of Wallace, but each time volleys of musketry and the fire of welldirected artillery, drove back the assailants with terrible slaughter. Hurlbut's division was driven back, at length, from its camp to the shelter of woods beyond. Here, with their raking fire across the open fields, they three times repulsed the advancing enemy. The right of this division was further supported by forces rallied from the broken divisions. Meanwhile Gen. L. Wallace, who was at Crump's Landing, five miles. below, was anxiously looked for, in the overwhelming odds against the remaining divisions, but unfortunately, though ordered up, he failed to reach the scene of action until nightfall.

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Finally, Hurlbut's division was compelled to retire, and at length that of Wallace, who fell, mortally wounded. The whole army was now compressed into a comparatively small area, near the Landing; many guns had been lost; thousands

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