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emy with no great difficulty, and occupying the place on the 6th of May. Schofield held the left, advancing by way of Cleveland and the line of the East Tennessee and Georgia railroad, encountering Wheeler's Rebel cavalry on the 9th, the advance being temporarily interrupted, with the loss of a small number of prisoners. The enemy, however, was repulsed without any severe fighting. As our forces advanced, both the railroads were put in repair. Thomas advanced from Tunnel Hill, and appeared before the enemy's position north of Dalton, supported by Schofield's forces on the left, and by Hooker's corps on the right, May 9th; McPherson, meantime, was executing his important movement on the extreme left. The Rebel position on Rocky-face Ridge, and at Buzzard's Roost, was of the most formidable character, and was apparently thought by the enemy sufficiently impregnable to withstand a siege, and to delay further movements into Georgia, if not altogether to arrest them. Here they first seriously contested the advance of Sherman.

The Rebel army in Georgia was now commanded by Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, who had succeeded Bragg after his fatal failure which gave our armies possession of East Tennessee, and a foothold on the border of Georgia. His leading generals were Hood, Polk and Hardee, each in command of an army corps. He had also a large cavalry force under Gens. Wheeler, Forrest, Rhoddy, and other commanders. The enemy's great advantage in position, in knowledge of the country, and in the fact that every mile's advance by Sherman added a new difficulty and hazard to his communications, was partly balanced by the superiority of numbers on the Union side. The result of this advance was regarded by President Lincoln rather with hope than with any assured expectation. The Rebel leaders, on the other hand, affected a consciousness of entire security, so utterly impracticable did they pronounce the advance of so large an army so far away from its base, with such force to encounter as that now confronting Sherman. In fact, serious difficulty had for a time been experienced in keeping up the line from Nashville to Chattanooga, without its further prolongation. The accumulation of supplies at the latter

place, however, rendered it practically a new base, for the time, and more especially since the enemy had been almost entirely driven out from East Tennessee.

While the several movements on the right and center, just indicated, were taking place, McPherson, with the Army of the Tennessee, moving by the road to Lafayette, on the extreme left, had passed through Snake Creek Gap, turning the Rebel position. Hooker's corps, moving south about twelve miles from its location in front of the enemy's lines, where it had remained since crossing Taylor's Ridge, on the 7th, passed through Snake Creek Gap on the 10th and 11th, effecting a junction with McPherson. On discovering this completely successful flanking movement in heavy force, the Rebel general ordered a retreat to Resacca, which commenced on the 10th. Sherman occupied Dalton on the 12th, having at once secured an important point, and dislodged the enemy from a position of great strength, without any more serious engagement than had attended his steady pressure on the front of the enemy's position north of Dalton.

Resacca is an important railroad station, about fifteen miles south of Dalton, and some distance north of the Oostenaula river. The new position taken by the enemy near this point was on a commanding ridge, densely covered with woods and thickets, and both naturally and artificially of great strength. On the 13th, Hooker's corps moved toward the front of the enemy's position, and skirmishers were thrown out, who became partially engaged with the opposing skirmish line, without bringing on any serious fighting. On the same day, McPherson's command advanced, a force sent out by him striking the railroad and capturing nine trains with supplies, retiring from Dalton. On the 14th, Howard's corps (the Fourth), now on the left of Hooker, became heavily engaged with the enemy at Resacca, and in the afternoon was forced back for some distance, when the First and Second Divisions of the Twentieth Corps were moved up in support. These reenforcements arrived at nightfall, and the enemy's column was checked and forced back, the Union forces sleeping on their arms. Early in the morning, a reconnoissance was sent out to

discover the enemy's position, and soon after noon, the Third Division of Hooker's corps having in the meantime been brought up, a combined attack, in which the latter division led the way, was made upon the enemy's works, which forced him to abandon his outer line. Wood's brigade, of Butterfield's division, also captured one of the inner forts, with a battery of five guns, but being exposed to a concentrated fire, was obliged to withdraw. Still strong in his inner intrenchments, the enemy made three successive sallies, in heavy masses, but was repulsed each time with severe loss. Darkness closing upon the field, our men again lay down in line of battle, with their arms at their side. Before daylight on the next morning, our skirmishers discovered that Johnston had hastily retreated, leaving his dead unburied, and his wounded on the field. Thus terminated the battle of Resacca, the first heavy engagement of the campaign. The losses were considerable on each side, those of the Union forces being somewhat the most severe in killed and wounded (estimated at 3,600). Gens. Hooker, Willich, Kilpatrick and Manson were wounded; the three latter seriously. The Rebel corps of Polk and Hardee lost several hundred prisoners, and the killed and wounded on that side were estimated at 2,000. Seven pieces of artillery were captured from the enemy, and three of his general officers were reported killed.

Pursuit was commenced on the morning of the 16th, Howard leading the advance in the center, but the main army of Johnston was not overtaken during the next three days. If we except a little unimportant skirmishing with his rear guard, near the close of that day, some fighting at Adairsville on the railroad, about ten miles north of Kingston, and a brief engagement with Newton's division of the Fourth Corps, on the 17th, three miles beyond Calhoun, the enemy made no stand until he had reached Cassville. Near this place, toward night, on the 19th of May, an attack on Hooker's foremost division, advancing on the right center, was made by Hardee's. corps, and some skirmishing followed, but a general engagement was avoided, the remainder of Hooker's corps not having come up. Our advanced forces intrenched themselves in front

of the enemy's lines at Cassville, but the morning of the 20th again found Johnston's army gone. Here, as before Dalton, a retreat without giving earnest battle had been compelled by a rapid advance of McPherson on the right, threatening Johnston's left flank. Cassville, not far from the Etowah river, is a few miles beyond Kingston, the point from which a branch railroad diverges westward to the important manufacturing town of Rome, at the junction of the Oostenaula and Etowah, forming the Coosa river. Kingston and Rome were occupied on the 20th of May, Howard's corps first entering the former town, while the Twentieth and the Twenty-third Corps, moving forward on the left, entered Cassville the same day. A large portion of the army remained encamped at these places. for the three days following, while McPherson demolished the Rebel manufactories at Rome, and prepared to continue his effective movements southward-steadily threatening the enemy's flank, and pressing on with all convenient speed toward the Chattahoochee. The railroad was, meanwhile, put in running order to Cassville, and the telegraph lines were extended with Sherman's advance.

Continuing the march on the 23d of May, Hooker crossed the Etowah river, his entire corps encamping at night on the south side of that stream. On the 24th and 25th, his corps was crossing over the Allatoona Mountains, while Sherman's center occupied Dallas. This movement to turn Allatoona drew out the enemy, who attacked Hooker's First Division near Pumpkin Vine Creek, about three miles from Dallas, on the 25th. A general action ensued, sometimes designated as the battle of New Hope Church. The enemy was driven back three miles, and at nightfall had been forced within his inner line of intrenchments. The new position taken up by Johnston was a strong one at the fork of the roads to Marietta and Atlanta, in a thickly wooded and broken country, with scarcely any roads, among the Etowah mountains. The center of Sherman's center was now about three miles north of Dallas, his right being at that place. This situation, with occasional sharp conflicts, was maintained for several days.

McPherson's flanking column, meanwhile, moving forward

from Rome, by a wide circuit to the right, had passed beyond Dallas, toward the Chattahoochee river. At Powder Spring, a dozen miles north of Sandtown, on the Chattahoochee, McPherson encountered a considerable force of the enemy, a sharp engagement following, in which the Rebels were driven toward Marietta, with the loss of 2,500 killed and wounded left on the field, and about 300 prisoners. The total Union loss did not exceed 300, as officially stated. After this victory, it appears that a cavalry force advanced to the Chattahoochee, at Sandtown, but was subsequently withdrawn.

On the 1st of June, a movement was commenced by the Army of the Tennessee toward the left, Sherman concentrating his forces for the purpose of flanking, by a general advance to the left, the enemy's position, from which he could, with great. difficulty, be dislodged. His works were firmly held during several days, in which more or less fighting occurred. The approaches to the Chattahoochee by our right were especially guarded against, and McPherson's advance in that direction was suspended. On the 5th, the enemy was again found to have withdrawn, to avoid the new menace, now on their right, toward the railroad, and Sherman advanced his army to Acworth, on the railroad, north of the Kenesaw Mountain, about fifteen miles from Marietta. Headquarters remained at this place during the next five days, while supplies were brought up, and preparations made for a further advance. On the morning of the 11th, Big Shanty was occupied, the Army of the Tennessee proceeding southward on the railroad, until within sight of the enemy's lines at a point called the Peach Orchard, when our forces formed in line of battle, throwing up intrenchments at the edge of an open field. The enemy's left now rested on Lost Mountain, and his right on Kenesaw. From this point the army gradually advanced by the usual slow approaches toward the opposing intrenchments, with some losses, until the 19th, when Johnston was found to have fallen back. During this period (on the 14th of June) Gen. Polk was killed. Sherman at once ordered an advance toward Marietta, in the hope of occupying that place without further serious opposition.

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