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ing in blood, till the self-sacrifice of mammalian mothers, and the inner voice that taught man “the quality of mercy” when he opened his ear to the lesson, uprose as witnesses to a benigner faith. The same principle supplies at once the origin and the correction of those worships which were the deifying of brute desire. Superstition, grasping part, creates a discord : religion, waiting for the whole, evolves a harmony.

50. Our immediate concern, however, is less with the manifestation of the Divine essence and attributes in the series of created being, than with the testimony that series bears to Divine purpose and forethought. And this will become still more strikingly apparent if, appealing to criteria as yet untouched, we consider, ever so briefly, the weight that is due, first, to what may be called the Duplication of Ground-plan, and, secondly, to what may be called the Correlation of Superiorities.

51. It is not in the animal kingdom alone that Divine Method is traceable: there is a vegetable hierarchy as well. And if we figure these as twin hemispheres, embracing the whole world of organic nature, past as well as present, it is profoundly significant to find that the trenchant line of demarcation which cuts off the higher from the lower life is drawn on the same prin

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ciple in both, and expresses, with the appropriate modification, an identical plan.90 Produce the animal equator to the vegetable hemisphere, where its own equator has previously been drawn, and the two unite : all life is bisected primarily by the same law of skeleton. Either segment of the northern or superior hemisphere is describable positively, by the presence of the first of the Cardinal Values, as that of Exogens or Vertebrates ; while either southern or inferior segment is only describable negatively by its absence, as that of Subexogens or Sub-vertebrates. South of the line, verging towards that province of “Protozoa ” where the two kingdoms blend at the base, although there may be noted certain tokens of parallelism between the sexless or at least sex-masking plants (Cryptogams=Acrogens, Thallogens) and the lower Mollusks and Radiates, it is in the upper regions tenanted by the Articulate and the Endogen that the similitude becomes unmistakeable. It is scarcely possible to say in which the jointed exo-skeleton, or circumsect structure, is more typically seen ; in the bamboo or in the bee, in the common cane, or other calamite, or in the scorpion and dragon-fly. North of the line, again, growth round a centre, as distinguished from growth within a circum


Articulate or Circumsec: type: Agrion Virgo: akin to Dragon-fly.

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ference, appears as the common prerogative of the vertebrate animal and the exogenous plant; the condition in both, as regards the individual, of the higher vital architecture, and in both the basis of protracted longevity. And, passing from the sustaining framework, or prop of the organism-in plants the stem, in animals the skeleton proper— which yields the first principle of natural classification, on to that second principle afforded by the greater or less elaborateness of provision for offspring—at which, since there may be no vegetable analogue to the law of cerebration, comparison may stop short—there emerges, as between the seed-exposing and the seed-sheltering groups of exogens (Gymn-exogens, Arch-exogens), a line of division strictly equivalent to that which parts, in the corresponding region, the mammalian and sub-mammalian zones. The bare double or multiple lobe (Di-poly-cotyledon) is a higher provision than even the sheathed and sheltered single lobe (Monocotyledon). But the vegetable envelope accumulated on the dicotyledon, as the earth waxed old, expresses, in its dumb way, the same maximum of solicitude for offspring, and the same care at once to foster and to shield it, as the manifold assiduities of the mammal. How fathomless the credulity which can persuade itself that the complicated parallelism in sexual adjustments, appearing thus far on in the two great kingdoms, is solved by idle jargon about “ self-evolving powers !” Galileo's dungeon-straw and Newton's apple are stock legends of science. The straw, rightly surveyed, is the cure for atheism which the

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