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salmon or the shark. It is like the going forth of a Divine decree: “ One shall be taken, and three shall

be left."

41. The second leet, Sub-vertebrates out of view, takes account of Vertebrates themselves as Mammals or Sub-mammals. Among the elect it makes an inner election. Besides the Backbone it exacts the Breast; shedding off, as before, three well-marked groups subordinate to the master-group of Mammals or Sucklers. Which breastless tribes are Birds, Reptiles, and Fishes; holding high, low, and medium rank among themselves, not so much on the principle of skeleton, or its specialized offshoots, as on that of characters which are correlated to the development of care for their young. In this the lungless and cold blooded water-breather is almost or wholly wanting ; and the instincts of the cold-blooded air-breather are also sluggish and dull. In this the warm-blooded air- breathing Bird becomes a prophecy of the unfailing devotion of the Mammal, and a parable for the Supreme Love Itself. “ Under the shadow of Thy wings shall be my refuge. “How often would I have gathered thy children together, as a hen gathereth her brood under her wings !” Still the Mammal, by its endowment of the fostering

bosom, stands elect, aloft, and apart - Bird, Reptile, Fish, far beneath in the scale ; and till it is shown how an animal that never got suck stumbled on the capacity of giving what was never given it, the Breast will stand, against all dreams of development, companion-barrier to the Backbone. Again is heard the elective edict : “One shall be taken, and three shall be left.”

42. Third, last, innermost leet : note has to be taken among the Mammalia themselves, from the Marsupials to Man, of the presence or absence of one testing character, and that the chief-the Perfect Brain. This is found in one creature, occupying, as it were, the inner ring and core of the concentric circles of vitality, and in

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one alone. In the lowest variety of man it is presentpresent in the Negro or the Bushman as in the civilized European ; and absent in all below man-absent in the

ape or the elephant as truly as in the kangaroo or the duckmole. To all men the pleno-cerebral type is common : to man, as such, it is peculiar. And till we hear of some simian tribe which speculates on its own origin, or discusses its own place in the scale of being, we shall be safe in opposing the Human Brain, with its sign in language, culture, capacity of progress, as barrier the third to Mr. Darwin's scheme. In proportion to the delicacy of the apparatus, and the value represented by its smallest variations, is the difficulty of laying the needle-point on those characters of structure which part the Perfect Brain from the Imperfect, and the grades of imperfection, among the manco-cerebral mammalia, from one another. Perhaps the best popular illustration that can be offered is that of a ship with every stitch of sail set, attended by a barque, a brig, and a one-masted vessel, none of them built for the full complement of canvas, and all with huge reefs taken in. By a purely inductive process, the sub-human mammalia have been cerebrally distributed into the wave-brained, the smooth-brained, and the loose-brained, 82 represented by the ape, the

the beaver, and the kangaroo ; with a result, so far as the two departments of science are comparable, like that of the application of Kepler's laws to the

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