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when a piece has a certain expression it is impossible to attribute to it a contrary one without changing one or more elements essential to the composition, that is to say, without making it another piece of music, M. Lévêque now endeavours to determine methodically the extent and the limits of this power of expression. He defines the various states of psychic sensitiveness and activity which the composer expresses, which the performer translates, and which the hearer is able to recognize and appreciate. This is the fourth article on Musical Esthetics in France,' and the writer does not appear to have exhausted his subject yet.-M. Fouillée takes up once again The Metaphysical Arguments in Favour of Free Will' and, in the present article treats of 'Causality and Liberty. Empirical causality, causality and quantitative infinity, the attempts to conciliate scientific causality and the conservation of energy with metaphysical contingency, and, lastly, intelligible liberty and intelligible causality, are the points which the writer successively develops.-M. Souriau follows with the first instalment of a study on 'Sensations and Perceptions.'-Steinthal's System of the Science of Language is the subject of a careful and detailed analysis. The Bibliographical Notices treat of two histories of Greek philosophy, Dr. Schwegler's and Ed. Zeller's more important and complete work.-Professor Park, of Queen's College, Belfast, having communicated to the Revue Philosophique the examination papers set in Logic and Metaphysics from 1879 to 1883, has called forth the following opinion, which accompanies a few typical examples of the kind of questions given to candidates: The questions which we set in France, for the various examinations are usually much more vague than the questions set by Professor Park. It must be allowed that the English system possesses very great advantages. It allows of a more easy appreciation of the knowledge acquired by the candidates, as well as of their grasp and accuracy of mind. Looked at from this point of view our system is inferior to the English system. But it has, at least in our eyes, one advantage, which, perhaps, compensates all its short-comings. It is more favourable to originality. There is, doubtless, great merit in being able to answer a question, but, in philosophy more particularly, the greatest merit consists in knowing how to set questions. When the subject which is to be treated is indicated in a somewhat vague formula, each one takes it after his own fashion, and, thus, often indicates very clearly by his very choice, the philosophical power of his mind. There are certainly things which we might borrow from our neighbours, but we should be wrong in abandoning our system altogether.-A paragraph informs us that Mr. Herbert Spencer, having already refused, on principle, the title of corresponding member of three foreign Academies, has also declined the title bestowed upon him by the Académie des sciences morales et politiques.'
REVUE DE L'HISTOIRE DES RELIGIONS. Janvier-Février, 1883. The first article in this number is by M. H. Gaidoz, and bears the somewhat enigmatical title'Two Parallels--Rome and Congo.' The two parallels' turn out, on examina tion, to be two ceremonies connected with the religious faith and life of Ancient Rome, which, he says, are found existing, with only some slight differences of detail, among the natives in the district of the Congo. The two rites referred to were in full force prior to the Portugese settlements at the Congo, and at a time therefore when, so far as is known at least, no intercourse had ever taken place between these native races and those of Latin origin, or those likely to be at all acquainted with ancient Latin usages. They have every appearance, M. Gaidoz thinks, of being independent, but yet are so strikingly similar as to provoke inquiry as to whether they may be both derived from one common, and very ancient source, or are the independent creations of the human mind in the presence of problems or circumstances of a like nature. M. Gaidoz does not attempt to decide this question, but contents himself in this short essay with calling the attention of scholars interested in such matters to the striking resemblance there is between the rites in question. One of them is the practice in Lower Guinea of driving nails into the fetish gods when an individual or a tribe wishes to avert some threatened calamity, be delivered from some existing disease or pestilence, bring to a successful issue some undertaking, or gain some great good, anxiously desired. The custom as it exists in the Congo district is
here described and contrasted with the similar practice existing in the south provinces of Europe under the old Roman religion, traces of which, survivals in fact, are found in these provinces yet in the superstitious rites of the peasantry. M. Gaidoz gives a very short but interesting account of this custom of driving nails and pins into sacred trees, walls, and images under the old Pagan régime, and details the instances where it is still found existing. He connects with this ancient religious practice, the clarus annalis, the nail which was driven into the wall of the temple of Jupiter Olympus Maximus every year, with much religious pomp, on the Ides of September, correcting Livy's idea as to its origin, which writers of Roman Antiquities have, until recently, unhesitatingly adopted. The other parallel' is not so clear or striking as the one just treated of. It seems that among the native tribes of the Congo their high priest or chief fetishman, who is regarded as the sole possessor of power over the forces of nature, and the dispenser, consequently, of all earthly blessings, enters on office in a very peculiar way. When old age, or disease which threatens to prove fatal, afflicts the existing fetish-man, he selects one of his disciples or ministers to succeed him. This nominee then proceeds, in the presence of the tribe summoned for the occasion, and with much pomp of ceremony, to strangle or club to death the aged or infirm priest, receiving his last breath into his own mouth or nostrils, which last breath conveys to him the power possessed by his predecessor, and therefore enables him to continue to his tribe all the blessings hitherto enjoyed by them. This mode of priestly succession is compared by M. Gaidoz to that followed in the case of the priests of the Temple of Diana Nemorensis, at the foot of the Alban Hill near Rome. The high priest here also killed his predecessor, and entered on office by virtue of the deed; but the differences here are greater, we think, than the resemblance is. The priest here was not chosen by his predecessor, nor was the murder of the existing priest a public and legitimate act. The priest was himself in this case a refugee from justice, and lived daily and hourly in fear of some other refugee falling on him treacherously, and by his murder succeeding to his unenviable and perilous post. M. Gaidoz' paper is, however, full of valuable information on a subject which, though obscure, is interesting and attractive. A further instalment of the French translation of Professor H. Kern's recent work on Buddhism is here given, which carries us to the end of Book I. The editor, M. Maurice Vernes, continues and completes his sketch of the Political and Religious 'Origins of the Israelitic people, discussing here at considerable length the question as to the original form and substance of the Decalogue, as also the origin and nature of Prophecy. He defends the idea, much debated in critical circles at present, that the original decalogue is to be found in substance, not in Exodus xx. and Deuteronomy v., but in Exodus xxxiv., and belongs to the early years of the Monarchy. In the brief space at our disposal here, it would be impossible for us to summarise his argument, and we must therefore simply refer the curious reader to the article itself. It will be found, we think, to contain about all that can be said for the notion advocated, and may be commended for its thoroughness, terseness, and logical precision. The other articles are a brief and not very appreciative notice of a Buddhist Catechism,' the work of an American, Mr. Henry Alcott; and a chapter from a book on the Prehistoric Antiquity of Man, by M. Gabriel de Martillet, which is in the press. The chapter given (only in substance, however, and with comments) is that on the Prehistoric Religion of Man. The usual summaries follow of Transactions of Learned Societies, and of note-worthy articles in French Revues, bearing on Religious History; and the Chronique for the two months.
REVUE DE L'HISTOIRE DES RELIGIONS (Mars-Avril, 1883).-This number contains nothing that calls for elaborate notice here. Like too many of its predecessors of late, it has been long in coming to the birth,' but, unlike most of its predecessors, it brings little to reward its readers for their patient waiting and cherished expectations. It opens with a short paper from the pen of M. Michel Nicolas, a continuation of his 'Studies on Philo of Alexandria.' He treats here of Philo's ideas of Inspiration and his manner of accounting for the anthropomorphic and anthropopathic representations of Deity in the books of
the Old Testament. This is followed by another of Professor A. Kuenen's 'Hibbert Lectures,' the fourth lecture, and it occupies most of this number. The whole work has been translated, however, into French, and issued by the publisher of the Revue in Paris. It looks here therefore somewhat like 'padding.' 'The Evangelic Legends among the Mussulmans' consists of a series of extracts from the Koran and other Islamic sources, bringing together and exhibiting the references made in these works to the Gospel narratives, and to some of the personages appearing there. This is contributed by M. J. A. Decourdemanche. M. A. Bouché Leclercq follows with the first part of a translation of the 'Sibylline Oracles' into French prose. This translation embraces Introduction and Book I. The 'Chronique' for the two months consists of a few notes about recent publications of an antiquarian interest, and large extracts from them.
REVUE DES DEUX-MONDES (June 1 and 15).-M. le Comte d'Haussonville opens the first number with an article on Official Colonization in Algeria.' He does not pretend to solve the varied and complex difficulties which the subject presents. His aim is merely to recall the successive attempts at colonization which have been made with a view to utilizing the incomparable resources of the magnificent province which France possesses in North Africa. His hope is that, guided by the experience of former years, the ministers, who are preparing expeditions for the purpose of constructing a railway in Congo, of civilizing the Hovas, of bringing the Annamites to their right senses, and protecting French interests in Tonquin, and who, it is said, are also about to make another attempt at official colonization in Algeria, may understand, not merely what it is expedient to do, but also, and more particularly, what it is important to leave undone. In a former essay on 'Social Psychology,' M. Caro examined what is styled psychological heredity. He endeavoured to prove that the action of heredity, though plainly discernible both in merely organic and in mixed phenomena, decreases as we rise in the hierarchy of the faculties, and tends to disappear altogether in the functions which are characteristics of man, such as pure thought, art, and morality. In a second study the author takes in hand the various phenomena of individual and social life, and shows to what extent they are influenced and modified by human personality, without which heredity could neither surely produce its happiest results, nor transmit them with impunity. The conclusions to which he is led are, that, in the psychological order, heredity is an influence, not a fatality. It penetrates to the very core of our interior life by means of our instincts, by the habits of our race, as well as by physiological impulses and inclinations, but save in morbid cases, it does not sway the moral personality to the extent of depriving it of all power over itself and of creating irresponsibility.-This year's 'Salon has no great reason to be proud of the judgment which M. Henry Houssaye passes on it. There are, he says, but few first-rate productions, in either painting or sculpture, the masters do not surpass their former efforts, indeed, a few fall short of them; as for the artists of the younger generation, they are clearly becoming weaker and weaker.-For the prosecution of classical and archæological studies France has three establishments one in Cairo, another in Athens, and a third in Rome. The work done by the last of these is set forth, by M. A. Geffray in an article, which no classical student can read without interest, and, we may add, without envy.-M. G. Valbert has drawn a very readable article from two narratives of arctic exploration, Schwatka's Search, Sledging in the Arctic in Quest of the Franklin Records,' and 'Als Eskimo, unter den Eskimos,' by Lieutenant Schwatka's fellow-traveller, Herr Heinrich Kutschak. There is an article on The American Vine, contributed by Mdme. la duchesse de Fitz-James, and the beginning of a tale, "Tête Folle,' of which M. Th. Bentzon is the author, in addition to the usual political, financial, and bibliographical matter.-After the continuation of Tête Folle,' which heads the second number, M. Gaston Boissier contributes the first of a series of 'Archæological Rambles.' Whoever has read Horace must have experienced a wish to become better acquainted with the celebrated country-house where the poet was so happy. Is it possible to determine where it stood? If we are unable to discover any traces of his villa itself, can we not, at least, determine the charm
ing site which he has so often described, the high mountains which sheltered his goats from the summer heat, the fountain near which he loved to recline, sheltered from the noon-day sun, the woods, the streams, the valleys, the whole landscape on which his eyes delighted to rest during the greater and best part of his life? All for whom these questions have any interest will find them answered in M. Boissier's scholarly and interesting article.-The presidency of General Jackson marks an epoch in the history of the United States. Of his many biographies, the best known and the most authoritative is T. Parton's 'Life of A. Jackson.' Within the last few months it has been supplemented by W. G. Sumner's, Andrew Jackson as a Public Man.' From these two works M. Albert Gigot has drawn materials for a sketch of the American President's 'Youth and Military Life.'-To what extent adulteration is carried on in Paris, and how far the lately established Municipal Laboratory' is able to cope with it may be learned from M. Denys Cochin, whose revelations are of a nature to inspire terror to any but the most resolute stomachs.
REVUE DES DEUX MONDES (July 1 and 15).-In the first of the two numbers for this month we have no less than five continuations. Ouida's 'Les Fresques' is concluded, and M. Th. Bentzon's Tête Folle' advances another stage. Another instalment of M. Maxime Die Camp's, 'La Charité privée à Paris acquaints us with the self-denying labours of the Hospitalers of Saint John of God, brethren of an order founded by John Ciudad, whom his church honours as a saint and whom alienists look upon as a madman, but who, whether saint or madman, is one of those heroes of whom humanity may justly be proud.After M. le comte d'Haussonville, who is still busy with Official Colonization in Algeria,' and M. A. Geffray, who considers the French school in Rome in connection with mediæval archæology, M. Eugène-Melchior de Vogüé recalls the dramatic incidents which marked the death of the Empress Catherine II., and the accession of Paul I.-The article to which, under present circumstances, we turn to with most interest, is that in which M. G. Valbert treats of Madagascar and the English Missionaries.' Here is a specimen of what the writer has to say concerning the latter and their influence: The government of the Hovas is, at present, an absolute monarchy tempered by the omnipotence of a prime minister, who obliges his sovereign to do and say nothing but what he wishes her to do and say, but in his turn, this prime minister does not take the liberty of formulating a wish until he has consulted those who have converted him. His queen is the prisoner of a prisoner. The English missionaries have persuaded Queen Ranavalona's prime minister that since the disasters which it has experienced France is no longer France, that, like the lion burthened with years, it is reduced to bewailing its former power, that, in its weakness it no longer feels insults, and that if it did take it into its head to get angry, England and Germany would lend its opponent a helping hand.' The Hovas themselves are described as being no fools.' 'We shall do well,' concludes the writer, 'to be moderate in our terms, but also to be very attentive. The diplomatist whose duty it will be to negotiate peace with the Hovas, will be bound to examine very closely the text of the treaty proposed by them, to weigh the meaning of every expression, to turn each word over and over, as he would turn one of their mats, to make sure that there is nothing rotten beneath.'
DE GIDS (June.)-In an article on the present tendency of Dutch literature, Mr. Max Rooses deplores the small scale of literary effort in that country. The writers of poetry do not attempt considerable poems, but produce trifles in large quantities; they polish small objects rather than handle great ones. The writers of fiction also content themselves mostly with short tales, they deal with fragments of life, and take great pains to write in dialect and to render costumes and manners with accuracy. The Gids generally contains a story, which is frequently in dialect, scarcely accessible to the reader in another country. These tales are often very slight, and some of the writers are capable of better work. The strictures of Mr. Rooses are true not only of Holland: the whole circumstances of the age seem to favour photographic reproduction rather than large works of imagination; and examples of this might be cited from the modern literature of every country.
The July and August GIDS contain a study of Shakespeare's Othello, by Mr.
M. P de Haan, which some of our Shakespeare societies would do well to get translated. Some students consider, with Brabantio and Iago, that the union of Othello and Desdemona is physically unnatural and could not be lasting: others that their characters could not match, Desdemona's nature being too slight and butterfly-like to pair with Othello's force and fire. On either of these views the marriage was fated from the first to end in tragedy. Mr. de Haan holds that the marriage was a true one, and would have been happy but for the intervention of Iago. Iago, not Othello, is the impersonation of jealousy. Othello's fault is too great confidence in his friend, too great simplicity. The case is one of moral poisoning, the hero's noble nature being quite perverted from its own instincts.
The August GIDS contains a fine article by Von Hamel on François Villon, student, housebreaker, and poet, as Mr. R. W. Stevenson calls him. The paper is by way of notice of a critical essay on the works of Villon, by Dr. W. Bijvanck, a Dutch scholar, who writes in French. This is the first critical edition of Villon, though a complete critical edition of the poems is also promised by Auguste Longnon, who wrote the biography noticed by Mr. Stevenson. Hamel has much more respect for his subject than our own lively essayist, who sneers alike at his studies, his love, and his remorse, and makes him out so thorough a blackguard that he becomes quite uninteresting, and his possession of genius incomprehensible. With the Dutch writer he appears a much more human and intelligible personage, the root of his genius is said to be his frankness and and straightforwardness, and he receives credit for studies which were not quite a sham, and for affection which were not disreputable.
In the June and July VRAGEN, Dr. F. A. C. Von Hoff, writes on over-pressure in the upper schools of Holland. The difficulty arising from the multiplication of subjects in modern education, is felt not only in Holland: modern culture is so many-sided, there are so many branches of knowledge which must be at least touched upon in a good education; and the powers of children to assimilate are so limited. The cause of the evil must be looked for mainly in better, that is, simpler and clearer teaching. Latin must be taught-it is essential to a liberal education; but instead of teaching the Greek language an attempt is to be made to give those children who are not destined for a learned profession some acquaintance with the Greek spirit and Greek life and art by oral communication merely. The suggestion appears to us a very sensible one.
The THEOLOGISCH TIJDSCHRIFT for May contains an essay by Dr. Blom on the Apocalypse. He holds the unity of its authorship against some recent critics, and sees in the John, who is said to be the writer, so great a resemblance to the Apostle John in the synoptic gospel, that the work ought to be ascribed to the Apostle, there being no conclusive argument to shew that this was impossible. The Island of Patmos is a literary fiction. The writer was in Patmos as a watchtower to receive his visions, as Daniel received his at Susa or on the Hiddekel, places he had not really visited. Dr. Blom thinks the polemic against Paul unmistakable, and finds it not only in the Epistles to the Churches, as most modern critics do, but in other parts of the book as well. The false prophet
of chapter xiii., 7, is St. Paul, his concessions to the Gentiles being a flattering of the ungodly world-power.
In the July TIJDSCHRIFT, Dr. Bruining has an elaborate article on Von Hartmann's new philosophy of religion, The Religion of the Spirit.' The criticism is for the most part unfavourable. 'In spite of Von Hartmann's merits as a philosopher,' it concludes, and his conspicuous services to the science of religion, I can see in this work nothing but an attempt to fuse two things into one, Hegelianism and the views on religion and science which have come to the front since Hegel's day. The attempt has not been sufficiently considered and prepared, and is in plain terms a failure. Into Hegel's theory there has been imported a foreign element, which destroys its unity without supplying what it wanted.' Professor Robertson Smith's lectures on the Bible in the Jewish Church have been translated into Dutch, not at Leiden by one of the moderns, but at Utrecht under the auspices of the Evangelical School there, who see in the work a pillar of orthodoxy. A notice of the translation, by Dr. Oort, expresses high appreciation of Prof. Smith as an able and independent critic, but fails to understand,