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according to the different usages of different countries*: yet the festivals of such Martyrs as were more eminent, and especially of the Apostles and Evangelists, were in a short time universally appointed to be observed, nearly in the same manner as they are by the Church of England at this day.

The

CYPRIAN, during his exile, exhorts his Clergy carefully to note the particular days on which the Martyrs suffered, that the anniversary of their festival might be commemorated at the proper season. In these commemorations it was customary to recite authentic documents of the acts and sufferings of the Martyrs : and the Council of Carthage, which prohibits the reading of any book in the Church, except canonical Scripture, permits the sufferings of the Martyrs to be read on the anniversaries of their festivals. reading of such narrations in the Latin and African Churches is often mentioned by the Western Fathers. Of the Legenda, Legends, or Narratives to be read, honourable mention is frequently made in the earlier ages; but the forgeries of the latter Monks, and the fabulous stories of the lives of saints admitted into the Breviaries, have so far disgraced the term, that a legend now signifies a Romish, or romantic fiction, a narrative equally unauthentic and incredible.

To admonish others of their duty, and to excite them to an imitation of the fortitude and virtues of the Martyr, whose festival was commemorated, Orations

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Tempora in honore martyrum pro diversa regionum varietate instituta. In Gal. iv.

were delivered. At the oblation of the Eucharist, which was always administered on these occasions, praises and thanksgivings were offered up for the good example of the Martyr in particular, and in general of all “Christ's servants departed this life:" and sometimes prayers were made FOR them, as well as for the faithful who were still alive.

From the Calendars, or records kept in different Churches to preserve the memory of primitive Martyrs, as well as of reputed Saints and Confessors of more modern date, general accounts were formed; and the number in the martyrologies at length was found to be so immense, that Churches in general appointed one day for the common commemoration of all Saints. Each individual Church, however, assigned especial days for the particular observance of the festivals of the Apostles, of their own indigenous Saints, and of such of those of other countries as had obtained superior celebrity.

In this state were found the Calendar and Offices of the Church of England at the time of our Refor mation. Whatever had been publicly practised or taught, in the preceding ages, was then scrupulously examined; and either preserved, as it was deemed decent and useful, or rejected as unprofitable or offensive. Our Reformers retained as many of the holidays, as they thought conducive to the advancement of religion and true piety; taking care, however, to correct some erroneous notions, that had been entertained respecting the Saints, whose anniversaries they still continued to commemorate.

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I am persuaded that the Compilers of our Liturgy, and the founders of our Protestant Church, originally intended, that all the festivals should be observed in the same manner with Sundays; that on each of them men should attend the public worship, and rest, except in cases of necessity, from their ordinary occupations of life. Let the reader judge what were their intentions from the words of the statute*. "Foras→→ "much as at all times men be not so mindful to laud " and praise God, so ready to resort and hear God's holy Word, and to come to the Holy Communion " and other laudable rites, which are to be observed " in every Christian congregation, as their bounden "duty doth require; therefore to call men to remem"brance of their duty, and to help their infirmity, it "hath been wholesomely provided, that there should "be some certain times and days appointed, wherein "the Christians should cease from all other kinds of "labours, and should apply themselves only and "wholly unto the aforesaid holy works, properly pertaining unto true religion; the which times and days specially appointed for the same are called holidays, not for the matter or nature either of "the time or day, nor for any of the Saints' sake "whose memories are had on those days (for so all

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days and times considered are God's creatures,' " and all of like holiness) but for the nature and "condition of those godly and holy works where"with only God is to be honoured, and the congre

** 5 and 6 Edw. VI. c. 3.

"gation to be edified, whereunto such times and

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days are sanctified and hallowed, that is to say,

separated from all profane uses, and dedicated "and appointed not unto any saint or creature, "but only unto God and his true worship; neither " is it to be thought, that there is any certain time or definite number of days prescribed in Holy "Scripture, but that the appointment both of the "time and also of the number of days, is left by "the authority of God's Word to the liberty of "Christ's Church, to be determined and assigned "orderly in every country, by the discretion of the "Rulers and Ministers thereof, as they shall judge "most expedient to the true setting forth of God's glory, and the edification of their people *.

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"It is therefore enacted, that all the days here"after mentioned shall be kept and commanded to "be kept holidays, and none other; that is to say, "all Sundays in the year, the days of the feast of the "Circumcision of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Epi"phany, of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin, of "St. Matthew the Apostle, of the Annunciation of the "Blessed Virgin, of St. Mark the Evangelist, of St. "Philip and Jacob the Apostles, of the Ascension of

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our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Nativity of St. John "the Baptist, of St. Peter the Apostle, of St. James "the Apostle, of St. Bartholomew the Apostle, of St.

* Opinions widely different from what is here delivered have unfortunately followed the too general introduction of Sabbatarian doctrines. They, however, have not been sanctioned by any authority whatever, except that of the individuals who hold them.

"Matthew the Apostle, of St. Michael the Archangel, "of St. Luke the Evangelist, of St. Simon and Jude "the Apostles, of all Saints, of St. Andrew the Apos

tle, of St. Thomas the Apostle, of the Nativity of "our Lord, of St. Stephen the Martyr, of St. John "the Evangelist, of the Holy Innocents, Monday and

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Tuesday in Easter week, and Monday and Tuesday in Whitsun week; and that none other day "shall be kept and commanded to be kept holy, or "to abstain from lawful bodily labour.

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"Provided, that it shall be lawful for every hus"bandman, labourer, fisherman, and every other per son of what estate, degree, or condition they be, upon the holidays aforesaid, in harvest, or at any "other time in the year when necessity shall require, "to labour, ride, fish, or work any kind of work at "their free wills and pleasure."

Though this statute was repealed by MARY, and continued so through the long reign of ELIZABETH, probably from the well known dislike of that Princess to her Parliament's interfering in ecclesiastical affairs, yet at the accession of JAMES it was revived. In the interim were published the Queen's Injunctions, and the table of all the feasts that are to be observed in the Church of England throughout the year. These give no peculiar distinction to Sundays above the other holidays. By the Injunctions, labour on Sundays, in some particular cases, is not only permitted, but it is positively enjoined. "All the Queen's faithful and loving subjects shall from henceforth celebrate and

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