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goes Sept., grassy meadows. Sterna Hirundo, Common Tern, goes Sept., sea shores. Sterna minuta, Lesser Tern, goes Sept., sea shores. Sterna Boysii, Sandwich Tern, goes Sept., sea shores of Suffolk and Kent. Sterna Dugalli, Roseate Tern, goes Sept., Scottish sea shores. Sterna nigra, Black Tern, goes Sept., fens, lakes, and rivers. Sylvia Phoenicurus, Redstart, goes Oct., orchards and old walls. Totanus calidris, Redshank, comes 10th, goes Oct. 29th, salt marshes. Totanus Hypoleucos, Common Sandpiper, goes Oct., pebbly margins of streams. Tringa pugnax, Ruff, goes Sept., fens. Turdus torquatus, Ring Ousel, goes Sept., mountains. Vanellus cristatus, Lapwing, goes Aug., barren fields and heaths. Yunx Torquilla, Ry-neck, goes June Aug., orchards and hollow trees.
SELECT CALENDAR OF BRITISH BOTANY FOR APRIL.
The figures at the end of names of Trees and Plants signify the number of Months' duration.
CLASS I.-Order 1. Chara flexilis, Smooth Chara.
and ponds, 8.
II.-1. Fraxinus excelsior, Common Ash tree. Woods and hedges, 5. Veronica verna, cum aliis Vernal, Speedwell, with others, Barren sand.
III.-1. Fedia olitaria, Lamb's lettuce. Corn fields, 6. Eriophorum angustifolium, Common Cotton Grass. In bogs.
V.-1. Myosotis versicolor, Yellow and blue Scorpion grass. Dry shady places, 6. Primula vulgaris, Primrose. Woods and banks, 5. Primula elatior, Oxlip. Banks and pastures, 5. Primula veris, Cowslip. Pastures, 5. Cyclamen hederifolium, Common Cyclamen. Woods, rare, 5. Viola hirta, Hairy Violet. Banks, 6. Viola palustris, Marsh Violet. Bogs, 6. Viola canina, Dog's Violet. Woods, 8. Ribes Grossularia, Wild Gooseberry. Woods and Hedges. V.-2. Gentiana verna, Spring Gentian. Mountains. VI.-1. Narcissus biflorus, Pale Narcissus. Sandy fields, 5. Fritillaria Meleagris, Fritillary. Meadows, 5. Tulipa Sylvestris, Wild Tulip. Chalk hills and meadows, 5. Ornithogalum umbellatum, Common Star of Bethlehem. Meadows, 6. Ornithogalum nutans, Drooping Star of Bethlehem. Meadows, 5. Scilla Verna, Vernal Squill. Rocks by the sea.
Adoxa moschatellina, Tuberous Moschatel. Damp hedges, 5. X.-2. Chrysosplenium oppositifolium. Opposite leaved golden Saxifrage. Wet places, 5. Chrysosplenium alternifolium, Alternate-leaved golden Saxifrage. Wet places, 5. Saxifraga oppositifolia. Purple Saxifrage. Alpine rocks, 6. Saxifraga granulata, White meadow Saxifrage. Meadows, 6. Saxifraga tridactylites, Rue-leaved Saxifrage. Walls and Ruins. X.-4. Oxalis Acetosella. Wood Sorrel. Damp woods, 5. XII.-3. Potentilla verna, Spring Cinquefoil Mountainous rocks, 6. XIII.-3. Anemone nemorosa. Wood Anemone. Woods, 5. Ane
mone Apennina, Blue mountain Anemone. Groves, rare, 5. Anemone ranunculoides, Yellow Wood Anemone. Groves, rare. Ranunculus auricomus, Goldilocks. Woods, 6. XIV.-1. Lamium album, White dead Nettle. Roadsides, 10.
XIV.-2. Lathrœea squamaria, Great Toothwort. A parasite on the roots of the Nut and Elm, 5.
XV.-2. Cardamine pratensis, Cuckoo flower. Meadows, 6. Cardamine amara. Bitter Cardamine. Moist places. Barbarea Vulgaris, Cress Rocket. Banks and Streams. Chevianthus fruticulosus, Wild Wallflower. Ruins, 5.
XVI.-2. Geranium Molle, Dove's foot crane bill. Waysides, 8.
XXI.-5. Quercus Robur, Oak. Woods, &c., Quercus Sessiflora, Ses-
XXII.-1. Salix russelliana, cum mult. aliis, Bedford Willow, and many others. Hedges, &c., 5.
XXII.-7. Mercurialis perennis, Perennial Mercury. Banks, 5. XXIV.-1. Equisetum Sylvaticum, Branched wood-horse tail. Moist Woods, 5, Equisetum fluviatile, Great water-horse tail. Moist Woods, 6.
RELIGIOUS AND PHILANTHROPIC.
APRIL 1, 1849.
NEWCASTLE CHRISTIAN BRETHREN: ADULT EVENING SCHOOL.— The Christian Brethren's Evening School, for apprentices and mechanics, is now held in the Butcher's Hall, Friars, Newcastle-uponTyne. About three years ago it was suggested by some members of the Church, then meeting in Ridley Court, that good might be done by opening a gratuitous Evening School for youths employed during the day, on the same principle as Sunday Schools are generally conducted, and for persons in the same class of society to which those institutions have been so beneficial. The suggestion was acted upon immediately, and Messrs. John Galloway, Alexander Guthrie, and Charles C. Hobkirk undertook to manage it, and to attend every evening the school was open, unless unavoidably prevented. They have kept this engagement up to the present time. The school has been open above three years; at first on two evenings in the week, and there were soon more scholars than they could well manage. No register having been kept at first, the number attending the first season cannot now be stated. As the summer advanced the attendance dropped off, and the school was closed until the September following, when it was again opened, to meet on three evenings in the week, and closed in the middle of April. The number enrolled that winter was one hundred and forty-five. Last summer the schoolroom and adjoining premises were burned down, and the books and school furniture destroyed, which delayed its re-opening till the 9th of October, in the Butchers' Hall, Friars. The number enrolled this winter is one hundred and twenty-six, and that number might have been doubled if there had been sufficient accommodation. But, it
would have been an evil, rather than a good,, to have put down names, and so held out expectations which could not be realized. On several occasions five or six, and more, have been rejected in an evening; and on the third Monday evening after opening, upwards of twenty were turned back without putting down their names, as there was no prospect of a vacancy occurring for their admission. Instruction is given in reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, and geography. Some of the scholars have attended three winters, almost from the period of its first opening; these have, of course, profited the most, though all have been benefited. It is only by a continued attendance that essential and permanent good can be effected. We hope this example will be followed by other denominations in this town, and that the Established Church itself will be excited to the good work of evening instruction, as it has been in Sunderland, by the example of the "Christian Brethren" in that town.
DIED, at Gateshead, February 13, in the 72nd year of his age, Thomas Kirkby Fife, Esq. He was born in Newcastle in 1777. His Mother had been a member of the Congregation at Catterick, Yorkshire, ministered to by the Rev. Theophilus Lindsey. The sacrifice made by that noble and pure hearted man of his ecclesiastical benefice, at the call of conscience, deeply impressed her mind, and led her also, by faithful study of the Bible, to the adoption of the religious principles, whose belief induced her beloved Pastor to renounce the Church of England. Those principles of faith, and hope, and love, her son received from her maternal counsel and instruction, and they were by him ever prized as a rich heritage of rejoicing. Evincing an early inclination for the Medical profession, Mr. Fife was apprenticed in the Newcastle Dispensary. For several years he acted as Surgeon on board a King's Ship, the Wright; and not long after the commencement of the present century, settled in Gateshead. For nearly thirty years he possessed a very extensive practice, gratuitously attending the poor, and always interested in every measure calculated to improve their physical condition, and elevate their moral and spiritual nature, thoughts, habits, and conduct. Institutions adapted to enlighten and ennoble any, and every class of society, found in him a judicious and earnest supporter. Devoid of all ostentation, retiring in character, his virtues whilst they attracted and won esteem in his professional career, found their most appropriate sphere in the domestic circle. Illness brightened and purified character. For the last thirteen years, an extraordinary and complicated complaint, had compelled him to retire from the public exercise of professional duty, but they were not passed in mental inaction. Religious reading and study, mingled with Astronomical research and contemplation, were his favourite pursuits. All increased and perfected his reverence of the Infinite Father. Protracted and acute pain had not power to dim his faith and trust in Divine wisdom and love. The flame of piety burned on brightly to the last. The New Testament was his daily companion, the truth in Christ Jesus his abiding hope. After joining in religious exercises with his friend and Minister, who had often been impressed by remarks emanating from his enlightened mind, nor least of all, by the solemn affectionate leave-taking of one he so highly esteemed, the last words which the departed addressed to him were these, instinct with Christian faith and hope, "We shall meet in Heaven."
NEWCASTLE, HANOVER SQUARE CHAPEL SCHOOLS.-Sunday morning and evening, March 4, Mr. Harris preached in behalf of the Schools connected with and supported by the Congregation. In the course of the year there have been under instruction in the Boys' Day School, 53; the Girls, 35; Sunday Schools, Boys, 69; Girls, 120; Adult Evening Schools for young females, 114; total, 391. The Teachers have been indefatigable, and merit every encouragement and commendation. Many valuable lectures on interesting and useful subjects have been given by some of their number, during the winter months, every fortnight, in the Girls' School room. The attendance has been crowded. Collection on Sunday, March 4, £16 10s.
How rapidly one valued Friend after another is taken from the circle which cheered, gladdened, and instructed the hours of childhood! We look back on the old familiar faces which made our young hours happy, and we ask, Where are they? The scenes amidst which boyhood loved to roam are still in being, the sod is as green as in days of yore, the trees are there, the banks of violets as sweetly scent the gale, the river glides by as peacefully, the castle ruins speak of byegone feudalism, and its ruthless iron sway, now happily no longer; but where are they, whose kindness made even such scenery more attractive, who counselled, guided, joyous in witnessing youthful joyousness, hoping on, hoping ever; where are they? Doubtless in the Heaven; which they ever devoutly recognized, and ever pointed the young opening thought, which gathered to their friendly and Christian Home. Such a Home is brought vividly to our recollection by the death we now record of Miss Ann Thomas, of Maidstone. She departed this life March 7, aged 73. Her faith was Christian, sincere, fervent. Unobtrusive, unaffected, mildness was her law. Sisterly affection shone forth always. Her friendships were lasting, her heartfelt interest in those she valued, unabated. The destitute never lacked if she could help. Her Christianity was that of Christ, devout, practical. A peaceful life is closed on earth, to be continued endlessly in the mansions of the FATHER.
WINLATON LITERARY AND MECHANICS' INSTITUTION.-About two years and a half ago, a few young men in this Village, situated a few miles from Newcastle, and the inhabitants of which are chiefly employed in manufactures connected with the iron trade, being desirous of mutually improving themselves, and elevating, morally and intellectually, the tone of society among their fellow-villagers, commenced this institution. A Library had for some years been in existence in the place, but they imagined that the demands of the age required something more from such a populous village as Winlaton. With the intention of partially supplying the deficiency, they began a "Mutual Improvement Society," to meet weekly, in which Essays should be read by the members, and discussions entered into on useful and interesting questions, and public Lectures also be delivered. After the society had been in existence a few months, the members, who at first were few, gradually increased, and with that increase grew the desire to extend their sphere of action. An effort was made to establish a Reading Room. That effort met with the usual discouragements attendant on all new movements. The lovers of "the good old times" arrayed themselves in direct hostility to it, and others treated it with coldness or indifference. None but those who
have seen and experienced the petty rivalries and jealousies that exist among country "influentials" even in these days of progress, and their determined antagonism to all changes, can form an adequate conception of the difficulties to be encountered by individuals in their humble labours for the amelioration of their race. But despite these opposing elements, the young men of Winlaton persevered, and as of course succeeded. Classes have since been commenced for instruction on several subjects, the Library greatly extended, and Sanitary Reform embraced. At every step the prospects of the Institution have brightened. The discussions have been sustained with zeal and vigour, and in the course of the last few months the following lectures have been given by the individuals named:-Edwin Paxton Hood, of York, on the Duty and Means of Self-education, and on the Poetry of the Working Classes. Dr. F. R. Lees, F.S.A., of Leeds, on Creation and man, their principles, processions, and adaptations. Rev. J. Flather of Gateshead, on Mental Culture. George S. Phillips of Huddersfield, on the Divines of the Commonwealth. Solomon Sutherland of South Shields, on the Religion, Poetry, and Philosophy of Ancient Greece, and their influence in promoting the civilization of the World. Mr. Joseph Cowen, Jun., the honorary and indefatigable Secretary of the Institution, and through whose praiseworthy efforts, much of the good which has been effected is to be attributed, on the Events of the past Year. George Dawson, B. A., of Birmingham, on the characteristics and tendencies of the present age. Mr. Harris was at Winlation, February 27, and March 7. The lectures were given in the Independent Chapel, and were numerously attended: the subjects, Death Punishment as administered by British Law, and the Substitutes for Capital Punishment: the Causes and prevention of Crime. He was pleased to witness the attention, earnestness, and life, characterizing the members. The Library contains about 1400 volumes; the Reading Room is supplied with two daily Newspapers, and 18 Weekly papers and Periodicals; the number of members averages eighty. An Annual Tea party is held, and the members being wishful of associating rational recreation with Literary and Scientific instruction, make an excursion during the Summer to some healthful and interesting part of the country, the Village band accompanying them. The Institution is in the "Northern Union of Literary and Mechanics' Institutions," and amongst other privileges, enjoys in consequence the advantage of obtaining Manuscript Lectures, several of which have been read at their public meetings, and having free admission for its members into nearly all the Mechanics' Institutions in the North of England. It would be very desirable could a Building be erected in Winlaton, in which, in addition to a Lecture Room, other apartments could be provided, so as to unite all the departments of the Institution under one roof. The energy and zeal which has already accomplished so much, will doubtless, in due season, effect this likewise.
DIED, on the 10th of March, at Gateshead, after a severe and protracted illness, Jane, wife of Mr. James Clephan, Editor of the Gateshead Observer. She was sustained throughout that illness by the spirit of hope, of unquailing trustfulness. Her strength came from on high. Her faith was in the Mighty One. It never deserted her. Happy in life, valuing it as the blessed gift of God, she wished its